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THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF CUCUMBER UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION.

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 80   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Nov 02, 2019 |  08:18 pm |  2412

CHAPTER TWO

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Cucumber is a vegetable that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family which is scientifically known as “Cucumis sativus”. The fruit is fleshy, smooth or rough depending upon the variety used. The pulp is watery and whitish in colour with seeds on the inside situated along the length of the fruit. The seeds can be found in variable quantities and they are oval, slightly flat in
shape with whitish yellow colour. A cucumber is a plant that requires high level of humidity due to the large surface area of its leaves. The optimum relative humidity during the day is in between 60% - 70% and in night in between 70% - 90% respectively (Nweke et al., 2013).
Cucumber is one of the most popular vegetables cultivated in our world and it requires more water than grain crops (Mao et al., 2003; Li and Wang, 2000). Also, Mao et al. (2003) showed that the total volume of irrigation water at all growth stages highly affected fresh fruit yields of cucumber. Cucumber may be grown in all types of loose soils which may be well drained and having sufficient organic matter. It is a plant which tolerates certain amount of salinity up to some extent. The optimum pH range is 5.5 – 7.0 (Sahin et al., 2015). Cucumber plants required very large amount of water especially at the fruit formation stage and throughout the growth stage. The least productive irrigation regimes are those that have water deficiencies during fruiting stages (Mao et al., 2003). It is one of the most important summer vine vegetable crop, and been rated suitable for screen house cultivation in comparison with traditional agricultural practices (Sabeena et al., 2016). Commercial production of cucumbers and other vegetables has increased steadily under green house as compare to severe climate (Boutheina et al., 2013). Due to such controlled atmospheric conditions in screen houses the yield and quality of cucumbers have been greatly improved

Nutrients are very much essential to plant growth and cucumber requires a large quantity of macro and micro nutrients for maximum growth when the nutrient coincides with the water availabile. Cucumber production in most part of the country is becoming common, probably due to its high nutritional and medicinal values (Nweke et al., 2013). Agriculture is one of the largest user of water globally. Water use in agriculture is often highly inefficient with only a fraction of the water diverted for agriculture effectively used for plant growth, with the rest drained or lost via evapotranspiration. With population growth, the need for food and thus agricultural water for irrigation is increasing. At the same time the quantity of water with a sufficient quality is declining. In crop production, water use efficiency can be relatively increased while amount of irrigation can be minimized through the effect of deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation is a strategy, which allows a crop to sustain some degree of water deficit during certain stages of crops or the whole season without a significant reduction in yield (Alomran and Louki, 2016). Irrigated agriculture has majorly been in practice, in order to produce food despite the possibility of low or no rainfall in an area. According to Boutheina et al., 2013, the concept of making optimum use of water and avoiding wastage of water during planting started during the nineteenth century. Water use efficiency can be greatly influenced and improved through optimum irrigation scheduling based on water use patterns and crop response to water deficit (Kamal et al., 2009). Drip irrigation applies less amount of water to the soil when compared to sprinkler or sub-surface irrigating systems but drip irrigation ensures that water directly reaches the root of the crops. Screen house cultivation for agricultural product has been proven to provide favourable condition for crop production which enables plant growth till their harvest (Sabeena et al., 2016). Adopting plantation of crops in a controlled and well observed area with technical practices such as climate control and drip irrigation ensures better growth, yield and water use efficiency (Kamal et al., 2009). Proper irrigation management is essential for improving the productivity and quality of crops grown in the screen house since rainfall has been avoided. Exact time and amount of irrigation are two deterministic factors for the efficient irrigation management (Sabeena et al., 2016). Accurate selection of planting parameters with correct irrigation scheduling will result in better yield. In Agriculture, how best water is sufficiently made use of as been extensively studied for many years. Universally applicable solutions are however difficult to come by, particularly due to different contexts and high specificity of agricultural practices but efficiency gains are often possible through suitable crop selection, proper irrigation scheduling, effective irrigation techniques, and using alternative sources of water for irrigation (Sahin et al., 2015). It should be noted that increasing water efficiency helps to provide more growth and yield in agricultural products. Adequate irrigation design, good irrigation management and scheduling have long been recognized as keys to increasing vegetable production on a sustainable basis. Due to the shallow fibrous root system of cucumber, it is sensitive to stress applied in water (Kirnak and Demirtas, 2006). According to Kaya et al., 2015, crops need sufficient application of water because a decrease or decline in the availability of water can cause the flower and fruits to have a recline in their yield. However, excess water application for cucumber has provided lower fruit yields (Şimşek et al., 2005). Fruit parameters such as length, diameter, number, weight, have also being positively and negatively affected with improper regularities in irrigation quantities (Kirnak and Demirtas, 2006). . The idea of scheduling irrigation intervals according to crop water needs minimizes the chances of under or over watering of the cucumber plant. The typical purpose of irrigation is to favourably maintain the water status of plants. It is also important to know the water susceptibility of plants for suitable irrigation management. Adequate amount of water must be applied at the right tie in order to get higher and better crop yield in an irrigated land. Few decades to come, irrigated crop production will be affected significantly with water scarcity.

There is a crucial need to improve the irrigation water efficiency under insufficient water supply conditions. Therefore, for drip irrigated cucumber, the effects of different irrigation quantities at different intervals consequently affects the fruit yield, yield components (fruit length, diameter, weight and number), irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and fruit quality (minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity (Sahin et al., 2015). With drip irrigation, small and frequent amounts of water are supplied to the root zone of the crop for effective growth and yield which also gives an optimum water requirement and increase in production (Mao et al., 2003). In areas of low rainfall or uneven precipitation distribution, the conservation of water is crucial for agricultural production. Under such circumstances, drip irrigation incorporated with right irrigation scheduling methods offer a useful option for economic production of vegetable crops such as cucumber.

1.2 Justification of the Study

Based on the uneven supply of water worldwide which affects agricultural activities and in
a wide range of crop yield, this research therefore seeks to study how cucumber will grow and
yield under deficit irrigation.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

1.       design a drip irrigation system for irrigating cucumber  

2.       determine the growth and yield of cucumber under different water application rates using
drip irrigation system.

3.       determine the water use efficiency of cucumber

REFERENCE

1.      Agricultural Statistics Annual, 2012. United States Department of Agriculture National

2.      Agricultural Statistics Service. USDA, 23 Oct. 2015. Web. 02 Dec.

3.      Ahmed F and Sabah Y. (2016). Effects of different irrigation regimes and mulches on yield and macro nutrition levels of drip-irrigated cucumber under open field conditions J.Plant Nutrition. 29: 1675-1690.

4.      Aizebeokhai A.P. (2009). International Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 4 (13) pp. 868-879

5.      Alomran A.M, Louki I.I, Aly and Nadeem M.E (2016). Impact of Deficit Irrigation of Soil

6.      Salinity and Cucumber Yield under Greenhouse Condition in an Arid Environment

7.      Almoran A.M and Louki I.I (2016). Journal on yield response of cucumber to deficit irrigation in greenhouse.

8.      Arshad I, Ali W and Khan Z.A. Effect of different levels of NPK fertilizers on the growth and yield of greenhouse cucumber by using drip irrigation. 2014, I(8): 650 – 660

9.      Ayas S and Demirtas C (2009). Deficit Irrigation effects on cucumber yield in unheated
greenhouse condition pp645 – 649

10.  Ayoola O and Adeniran O. (2006). Influence of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer on yield and yield components of crops under different cropping systems in South West Nigeria.

 


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