+2348145391376  support@e-projectmatters.com
You are here: Home ❯ THE IMPACTS OF MURTALA OBASANJO AND BABANGIDA FOREIGN POLICIES ON THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF NIGERIA

THE IMPACTS OF MURTALA OBASANJO AND BABANGIDA FOREIGN POLICIES ON THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF NIGERIA

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 80   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 09, 2019 |  01:56 pm |  3121

ABSTRACT

This study is the impacts of the Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida foreign policies on the domestic economy of Nigeria using Idealist Theory. The major objective of this study was to identify the foreign policies during the military regime of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida, and to find out the impacts of these policies on the domestic economy of Nigeria. The data presented in this study was obtained from secoundary sources. The method used to analyze the data was critical descriptive method. The problem of this study cut across variant issues, one of the problem of this study lies on the fact that the Nigerian military has since 1966 to date, embarked upon a higly important role in area of civil governance, indeed of which it was not established to do so. This problem further compounded by other obstacles to achieving the operational aspects of Nigeria’s foreign policy. They include over centrilization of decision and policy making process, polictical culture that does not allow for continuity in policies, issue oriented politics rather than personality politics. Another problem that hindered General Murtala Muhammed from achieving much during his regime was as a result of his assassination, on his way to work during an abortive coup led by Lt Colonel Buka Suka Dimka on february 13, 1976. Others are: the inability to have a clear picture of implementation of policies, with the billions of naira in the course of this study spend by the aforementioned regimes in the light of foreign policy and yet from that advent to the present, the economy still strives to stand with high level of unemployment, inequality and poverty. This has contributed negatively on the domestic economy of Nigeria and hence causes slow growth and development on of the national economy and better citizenery lives sustainance.The findings of this study showed that, Nigeria’s foreign policy has since independence been consistently guided by the same principles and objectives. And in the light of this, the Murtala/Obasanjo regimes earned the duo remakable political recognition in their prospective leadership roles both regional and external. On the other hand, economic impact internally efforts were made and the major that survived the both polities was the Oil boom, and hence on the part of external relations in the context of foreign policy to boost the national economy it recorded a negative impacts as proved in the findings. The findings of this study also showed that, the regime of General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida on the same status quo, remarkably earned political recognition for its leadership roles, participations and contributions. Most especially in the sub-regions at a point he was made the Chairman of Economic Community of West African States, he played a prominent role such that, he was part of the initiative protocol of 0.5% pay for the free movement of goods and persons within the 16 Member States of ECOWAS. As a result this improved productive economic activities for Benin republic and others. Despite all these, the findings showed that the regime also survived on the premise of Oil boom, in her numerous interactions cut across: OAU, ECOWAS etc. And yet in all these relations in terms of economic boost on the sphere of external context of foreign policy proved a negative impact on the domestic economy of Nigeria. In the conclusion, it was argued that, Nigeria’s foreign policy has since independence been consistently guided by the same principles and objectives. Variable i.e, the the protection of the country’s national interest. Secondly, it added that the recent developments of Xnenophobic attacks on Nigerians living in South Africa bring to stark reality the preponderance of Nigerian community in post apartheid South African economy, the attacks in which attracts lost of lives and many were displaced, is very alarming and should be an eye opening to the subsequent governments. Because the essence of most citizens leaving the shores of the country to else where is mostly conceived, due to the high level of unemployment, coupled with the precarious nature of our weak economy and to some what failure on the part of leadership.

Therefore, this should be addressed and in whole, lets brain storm as a nation on the basis of ideas, which in the words of Hagel shapes and build society. As a nation the manners with which we initiate policies as national leaders wheather internal or external hence be critical in our thoughts and operations, because again in the words of Albert Einstein we can not solve our problems with the same thinking we used, when created them. As a panacea, the study recommended above all, that Nigeria must involve a pragmatic home grown economic policy on trial and error approach and must embrace a honest abode by its implementation. Because the economy survival and growth is basic and key in the sustainance of policy objectives and foreign policy of any nation in the wider scope.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

At the very premise Nigeria became an independent sovereign entity in 1960, it articulated its own foreign policy. At independence, Nigeria could not really assert herself due to the fact that the newly independent state was just trying to find her footing, but Nigeria assumed wider roles shortly after independence (Ibijola and Opeyemi, 2012). There are a lot of factors, forces and pressures that influence a country‟s foreign policy. Some of these factors include regimes, personalities, psychological environment of the decision makers, nature of the state‟s economy, historical experiences, the nature of the political society and several other factors go a long way in determining foreign policy (Babawale, 1988). Babawale, further contends that:

In the Nigerian case, the fact of the fragility of the post-colonial state and the alliance between the local dominant classes that captured power after independence, and foreign capital is very illustrative. The basic pre-occupation of the dominant power elites therefore was the consolidation of inherited colonial relations and structures, the pacification or intimidation of non-bourgeois forces and the tailoring of the Political Economy towards the direction of private capital accumulation.

A specific milieu has therefore been created for the nature and content of the foreign policy of the country given the outlined realities. The foregoing averment by Babawale (1988) can be said to be the background that influenced the nature of Nigeria‟s foreign policy at the beginning.

However, as Ashiru (2013) noted, though the principles of Nigeria‟s foreign policy have been fairly consistent since independence in 1960, the specific interests, priorities and emphasis of Nigeria‟s foreign policy have continued to change in the context of the changing domestic and international environment.Notable scholars on Nigerian external relations such as Akinyemi, Aluko, Gambari, Birai etc demonstrated the influence of domestic conditions on the country’s attitude and behaviour to other actors in the international system. The influence of domestic politics on Nigeria’s foreign policy was made obvious to the international community  on 1st October, 1960, by the then first Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa himself in a moving address to the United Nations General Assembly in New York.

He observed that: Nigeria does not intend to ally itself as a member of routine with any of the ideological power blocs and Nigeria hopes to work with other states for the Progress of Africa and to assist in bringing all other African territories to a state of responsible independence. Given the domestic nature and the country’s size and at the same timenatural resources, it was assumed that Nigeria would play a leading role in the continent of Africa. Some scholars even spoke of the country’s manifest destiny to lead Africa surrounded by small and weak states.

Abubakar, (2004),reviewing Gambari said that; the first phase, one of uncertainty and timidity of Nigerian Foreign Policy coincided with the period of the First Republic (1960 – 65). The major issue at that time were the official foreign policy declaration itself; the Anglo Nigerian Defence pact, the Congo Crisis and African Unity; Negotiations for associate status with the European Economic Community (EEC): the Rhodesian Crisis and Common Wealth relations; and the Arab – Israeli antagonism and the search for a cohesive policy towards the middle east. Nigeria throughout this period operated a Pro- West foreign policy disposition. The conservative nature in her external relations was dictated by Nigerian Federalism which profess three strong regions with a weak centre. Prime Minister Balewa then had a constitutional authority which was not always matched by the political power needed to override these divergent groups encroachment upon Nigeria’s foreign policy.

The coming together of the two parties i.e Northern Peoples Congress (NPC) and National Council for Nigerian and Cameroon (NCNC) which formed a coalition government then forced the Balewa government to make adjustment in order to keep the partnership viable. Consequently, Nigerian foreign policy during the 1960 – 65 period was less dynamic than it would have been if the NCNC had been solely responsible. By the same token, it was far more assertive, Pan Africanist and neutralist especially on the Middle – East than it would have been if the NPC had exclusive control.Abubakar, (2004).

The need to adjust in order to accommodate the sometimes contrasting views of the governing parties and save the alliance, made Balewa’s foreign policy liable to such criticism as lacking in consistent imagination anddynamism and characterized by Ad – hoc decision making which tended to be contradictory and self – defeating. The second phase of Nigerian Foreign Policy was the period between 1966 – 1975 under which a lot of changes took place at the domestic political level. The Nigerian external relation was marked by active, positive and influential role especially in the continent. The fragile nature of the Federalism was replaced by a stronger centre with 12 states constituting the Federating Unit. The assertion of the military rule under General Yakubu Gowon dramatically changed the dimension of the scheme of themes.

The discovery of oil boom also assisted in great measure in allowing the country to play more decisive leadership role in World affairs, as it increased the revenue accruing to the Federal government. The previous low keyed, resistant and often apologetic approach to African affairs had to be changed. Abubakar, (2004).

The aftermath of Biafra experience was also instructive as the country came up with a coherent policy to her fellow African countries. The integrative efforts of Gowon with the establishment of ECOWAS and the financial and moral assistance to neighbouring West African countries were remarkable. Nigeria’s extension of hand of fellowship to the Eastern block countries such as China and Soviet Union was seen as a policy shift from the earlier position. The country played a frontline role in Southern Africa problems by increasing financial and other assistance to the Liberation Movement there. Gowon’s active role in Africa later earned the country the chairmanship of OAU. Similarly, Nigeria led other African countries in breaking diplomatic ties with Israel in the wake of the latter’s hostility against Egypt. The nature of the regime and its domestic economic condition explained fundamentally the drastic change in Nigeria’s diplomatic style under General Gowon. General Gowon was overthrown in a bloodless coup in July, 1975.

A momentous shift of Foreign policy position was however achieved under the General Murtala/Obasanjo regime. This is one administration whose foreign policy posture was characterized by dynamism as the regime strove to move the country’s foreign policy to a more truly non – aligned position particularly within the six months of Murtala’s rule. The regime’s bold move to recognize Popular Front for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). MPLA in Angola and the memorable speech to the Organization of African Union (OAU). OAU extra ordinary Summit Conference at Addis – Ababa in January, 1976 remains a remarkable turning point. Three main factors have been identified as being responsible for this dynamic posture. The first factor is that of increased revenue due to the oil wealth. The other two factors are the character of the leadership itself and the institutional The next phase in the development of Nigerian Foreign Policy came with the return to civilian rule (1979 – 1983). Abubakar, (2004).

The external policy of the Shagari administration is comparable only to that of the Balewa Era. Some scholars and commentators consider the Second Republic as having engendered retrogression in the country’s foreign policy resulting from its Pro – Western policy. For sure, the period of retrogression began during the Obasanjo regime when the country experienced a return to subservience. The major factor explaining the retrogressive nature of the country’s foreign policy during the period is found in the character of the leadership. The National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was made up of the most aristocratic, conservative businessmen and a sprinkle of academicians of the same mould. Most of them have economic and social links with the elite of the Western World even if at a peripheral level.

This among others made it difficult for them to formulate an independent foreign policy which might necessitate occasional disagreement with the Western powers. Moreover, the nature of Nigeria’s mono – cultural economy with its sole dependence on oil was such that by 1979, the country’s level of integration into the World capitalist system by transitional interests was enhanced as represented by the oil companies. Between 1981 – 1982, the country total export had declined considerably by 34.5 percent and the monthly import bill reached the one billion mark just one year after Shagari took over. Invariably, the regime could not keep to its electoral promises to the people. On the foreign arena, the regime could not maintain the momentum of those progressive actions taken since Murtala Mohammed came to power that continued to enjoy the support of the informed elites. Abubakar, (2004).

Indeed, there was recourse to the old order of passive and reactionary posture in Nigerian Foreign Policy as manifested in the country’s policy on the Chadian Crisis, OAU and ECOWAS. It was abysmal lack of focus and inability of the regime to respond to the various domestic demands that precipitated the collapse of the 2nd Republic with the overthrow of the government by the Buhari led military Junta in December, 1983. The coming to power of this administration was very much welcomed by the Nigerian public. This was largely due to the total disaster of the Shagari administration. The new government was well received more so as it claimed to have been the offshoot of Murtala administration. The administration came with the purpose of restructuring and bringing the economy back to sound footing. It also vigorously sought to institutionalize a new ethic of National leadership based on discipline, public accountability and integrity. Abubakar, (2004).

There was also more commitment to the polisaro and recognition of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic. Other policy issues, particularly the expulsion of aliens and the closure of Nigerian borders were received with mixed feelings by the neighbouring countries. Nonetheless, Buhari’s anti – West Posture was remarkable, as it demonstrated its autonomy and status in decision making. Nigeria’s diplomatic relations with such powers as United States and United Kingdom became ruptured. In all these instances, Nigeria demonstrated to the rest of the World that she was not ready to take insults or directive from any country big or small, The regime at the end suffered support erosion with its human right abuses, a situation which made it easy for it to be overthrown. The Babangida government that succeeded the Buhari regime was described as a Liberal/benevolent military regime especially at its infancy.

The administration like its predecessor was committed to economic restructuring which informed its choice of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). The programme had adverse effects on the life of Nigerians, and as expected had serious implications on the country’s external relations. The regime’s handling of the bombing of Libya by the United States of America (USA) was heavily criticized so also was the regime’s Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) policy which almost precipitated serious internal upheaval.

It was apparent that the government under the guise of economic diplomacy succeeded in playing into the hands of the Western powers as its economic programme could be said to be anything but humane. The failure of Babangida to respect the peoples mandate with the annulment of the June 12 Presidential election’s result, after endless political transition led to the demise of the regime.Abubakar, (2004).

Nevertheless, many foreign policy observers have argued that Nigeria was at best in foreign policy during the General Murtala Muhammed regime which was unfolded in six month. The foreign policy dynamic, radical, and consistent. After the overthrow of General Yakubu Gawon, the new Murtala regime set up a Committee to review Nigeria’s foreign policy and advice the government on what to do. The Commitee was made up of people from the armed forces, the universities and career diplomat of the external affairs ministry. Most of the success of this period in foreign policy was due to the advice of the group. The Commitee headed by the Adedeji Adebayo, former Commissioner of Economic Development. The Adedeji Commitee has as it terms of reference, a detail and comprehensive review of Nigerian’s foreign policy including economic and technical cooperation and formulation over all strategies and priorities for the next ten years.  A region by region assesment of the country’s foreign policy including economic and technological cooperation. (Garba, 1995).

However, a major foreign policy decision by General Murtala Muhammed regime, a few month after resuming office was the recognition of the Popular Front for the liberation of Angola (MPLA), suprised many observers both at domestic and international levels. In Government and private western circle in particular, the decision caused much consternation for, unlike radical  African states with the likes of: Tanzania, Muzambique, Congo, Algeria, Republic of Guinea and Guinea Bissau-Nigeria had no ideological affinity with the MPLA regime.

Besides, it had not shown public sympathy or bias for any of the contending major liberation movements-MPLA, National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) since the outbreak of the Angola’s civil war. Alhaji M.D Yusuf who in the Murtala government became Inspector General of police, play the key role in persuading General  Murtala Muhammed to recognize the MPLA regime.  However as soon as it became clear that South Africa’s military intervention in Angola was at the invitation of the FNLA-UNITA coalition, Murtala required little persuation to recognize the MPLA government. When the decision was announced on 25 November, 1975,  the world was stunned. N 13.5 million was rushed to Agostino Neto’s government to add muscle to Nigeria’s recognition of the government. Sotumbi, (1981).

1.2 Statement of the Rerearch Problem

The research examined the impacts of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida foreign policies on the domestic economy of Nigeria. By their training and orientation constitutionally, the Nigerian military as a public institution is supposed to defend the territorial integrity, national sovereignty, freedom, wealth and people of their country from external aggression. They are also needed for the protection of the nation from disintegration by aiding law enforcement authorities in maintaining law and order when necessary.

One of the problem of this study lies on the fact that the Nigerian military has, since 1966 to date, embaked upon a highly important and professional role in area of civil governance, indeed of which it wasn’t established to do. The Nigerian military lacks the essential training and orientation to  actively manage the process of foreign policy formulation and its exhibition.

This problem is further compounded by other obstcles to achieving the operational aspects of Nigeria’s foreign policy.

They include over centrilization of decision and policy making process, political culture that does not allow for continuity in policies, issue orientated politics rather than personality politics. The problem manifests itself in lack of established pattern of interests, traditions or principles by which the Nigerian foreign policy is founded.

Another problem that hindered Murtala Muhammed from achieving much during his regime was his assassination on his way to work during an abortive coup led by Lt Colonel Buka Suka Dimka on February 13, 1976. By and large, one major problem facing foreign policy in most third world countries, Nigeria in particular, is the inability to have a clear picture of implementation of the policies initiative as put foward, saveral governments has spend  billions of naira just like the aforementioned regimes of this research study in the light of foreign policy, and yet from that advent to the present, the economy still strives to stand with high level of unemployment, inequality and poverty, is experienced in the country. Secondly, high rate of corruption in the system is very alarming and this has contributed negatively on the domestic economy of Nigeria and hence, propels slow growth and development of the national economy and better citizenery lives sustainance .

This research study is therefore borne out of the need to tackle the problem encountered above among others in order to proffer suitable solution to these basic problems.

1.3 Research Questions

The research questions for this study are:

a)      What are the major foreign policies of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida?

b)      What are the impacts of the foreign policies of Murtal, Obasanjo and Babangida on the Nigerian economy?

c)      How can the shortcomings of Nigeria’s foreign policies during Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida be corrected to positively impact on the economy of Nigeria?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The research objectives of this study are:

a.       To identify the major foreign policies during the military regime of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida

b.      To find out the major impacts of the foreign policies of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida on the Nigerian economy.

1.5 Research Proposition or Assumption

The research is based on the assumption below:

a. There is a linkage between foreign policy and domestic economy.

1.6 Significance of the Study

What motivated this study is the countinous discountinuity in policies initiative and implementation in the country from the purview of both the military and civil governance overtime. The study aimed to encourage good policy continuity that is build to effect positively on the lives and sustainance of the populace. The study is therefore very important for certain reasons:

First, it provided historical development in the Nigerian foreign policy between 1960 and 1979 and others, thereby shedding more light on the dynamics that characterized her external relations. Secondly, it helps to re-affirm the bold attempt made by the military government under the leadership of the General Murtala Mohammed, Retired General now Chief. Olusegun Obasanjo and General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida to give a u-turn to the country’s foreign policy objective. And also, it discusses the domestic factors that influenced the foreign policy decision making of Alhaji Tafawa Balewa. Thirdly, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists and international relations experts in their research as well as institutions. lastly, the political and military class will learn, through this study, the need for them to be patriotic like the former Nigerian leaders who acted as Nigeria’s arrow head in the international arena.

And it is hope that the study could lead to the achievement of the government major policy objectives in the area of increasing efficiency in policy making and implementation.

1.7 Scope and Delimination of the Study

The scope of this study is mainly limited to the foreign policies of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida military regimes. However, the source of the materials used in this work has not been without its difficulty, since information on foreign policy and related issues surrounding it are generally regarded as ‘’clasified’’ and ‘’restricted’’. But all these problems notwithstanding, where vital information was found lacking,  a suppliment and substitute is made with related one, this confirming the saying that ‘’in the absence of the desirable the available becomes the desirable’’.

1.8 Research Methodology

Historical research method is used in carrying out this study. Therefore, the method is based on

data collection technique which include: the studies of different scholars, works on the Nigerian military and isssues concerning foreign policy, which are mainly papers presented at seminars and workshops, etc.

The research will also use data on foreign policy implementation during the military regimes of Murtala, Obasanjo and Babangida. These will be in form of official gazettes, bulletins, selected official releases of government documents,speeches, pronouncements, lectures by important government funtionaries and scholars related to the subject matter.

1.8.1 Research Design

A research design, is an arrangement of conditions or collections. There are different ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is artificial and other times different designs are combined. Nonetheless, research design types includes: descriptive, correlational, experimental and others. This research study therefore adopts descriptive method.

1.8.2 Data Collection

The method of data collection used in this study will depend solely on secondary data facts, and the subject matter will be collected through the use of library: Textbooks, relevant articles and reports in journals, periodicals and newspapers, magazines, conference proceedings and internet sources related to the research will be explored to enrich this work.

1.8.3 Data Analysis

The mode of data analysis is qualitative which is largely descriptive and analytical. Descriptive analysis is an interpretative analysis based on data collection. As regards data analysis, a combination of simple descriptive analytical and deductive methods is mainly employed. Inferences drawn from writings and commentaries of scholars and other related materials. The method however is premised on the idealist theory. Data largely sourced through secondary data.

 

1.9 Operational Defination of Terms

For the purpose of this research study, it is imperative to understand peculiar semantics of  some  few key concepts:

Foreign Policy: Cordinated strategy with which institutionally designated decision makers seek to manipulate international environment in order to achieve certain national interest’’.

Foreign policies are formed through high level decision making processes and the process differs from one type of government to the other depending on the type of government.

Policy Objective: a specific result a person or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources. Objectives are basic tools that underlie all planning and strategic activities. It is also the achievement of a desirable level of a particular variable. In other words, it is not formulated unless it is thought to be necessary or to have a benefit.

Domestic Economy: it simply means the internal economy of that country.

Regime: A period of time that a person or system is in power.

1.10 Organization of Chapters

Chapter one is the introduction/background to the study, statement of the  research problem, research questions, objectives of the study, research prepositions or assumptions, significance of the study,scope and deliminations of the study, research methodology, operational definition of terms and organization of chapters. Chapter Two is the introduction,  literature review, theoretical framework and conclusion.

Chapter three is based on the historical background of Murtala, Babangida and Obasanjo regime, introduction, cardinal objective of Nigerian foreign policy, structure of foreign policy, mechanism for foreign policy, the foreign policy direction of Murtala Muhammed (1975-1976), the foreign policy direction of Olusegun Obasanjo (1976-1979), the foreign policy direction of Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida (1985-1993).Chapter four is the effects of the Murtala, Obasnjo and Babangida foreign policies on the domestic economy of Nigeria, introduction, Murtala’s foreign policy and its effects on the domestic economy of Nigeria, Obasanjo’s foreign policy and its effcets on the domestic economy of Nigeria, Babangida’s foreign policy and its effects on the domestic economy of Nigeria, conclusion. Chapter five which is the final chapter comprises of summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Therefore, this should be addressed and in whole, lets brain storm as a nation on the basis of ideas, which in the words of Hagel shapes and build society. As a nation the manners with which we initiate policies as national leaders wheather internal or external hence be critical in our thoughts and operations, because again in the words of Albert Einstein we can not solve our problems with the same thinking we used, when created them. As a panacea, the study recommended above all, that Nigeria must involve a pragmatic home grown economic policy on trial and error approach and must embrace a honest abode by its implementation. Because the economy survival and growth is basic and key in the sustainance of policy objectives and foreign policy of any nation in the wider scope.

Place an Order Now↓

QUICK DOWNLOAD

RECENT UPLOAD

No data found...

 Locate Us

Number 95,
Gaa-akanbi Ilorin,
Ilorin Kwara State,
Nigeria.
  08145391376
  support@e-projectmatters.com

Media

Subscribe to Receive Topics

©E-Projectmatters.com || 2022
Designed by: AEMMI