Format: MS-Word Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 82 Attributes: Primary Data/questionnaire, Data Analysis
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Noise is defined as any sound or combination of sound usually unwanted or unpleasant and irritating (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). This is usually brought about by development and or modernization in science and technology especially in cities and towns. Oyedepo (2012) reported that crowded cities and towns, mechanized means of transportation, new devices of recreation and entertainment are polluting the atmosphere with their continuous noise. It is of no doubt that noise is a normal phenomena of life that one cannot completely do away with but varies from place to place with the level of development in the given area. It however continuously disrupts human activities (Spence, 2003).
In contrast to many other environmental problems, noise pollution continues to grow and is accompanied by an increasing number of complaints from people exposed to the noise. The growth in noise pollution is unsustainable because it involves direct as well as cumulative, adverse health effects (Yilmaz and Ozer, 2005).
Noise pollution did not create much public concern due to ignorance about the treacherous effect of noise on both workers in industry in particular and the public in the community in general. It is therefore imperative to assess the environment in which the noise is being heard by using suitable bases of judgment and awareness to determine whether or not a definite nuisance exists.
Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting sounds which are clearly audible and which may result in disturbing any natural process or causes human harm. Consequently, noise is an unwanted sound. What is pleasant to some ears may be extremely injurious to others depending on a number of psychological factors (Hamza, 2008).
Carbon emissions refers to carbon substances released into the atmosphere, that is, the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced by motor vehicles and industrial process forming pollutants in the atmosphere. Carbon emission is a menace emanating from increase in the demand for energy. In other to meet energy demand for industrial, domestic and or individual need, burning or combustion takes place and as a result carbon is being released to the atmosphere. Also modernization and technological development has depleted our environment in the sense that value has been lost.
Noise pollution and carbon emission is a two-way phenomena that forms concomitant as technological devices which emits carbon are capable at the same time of generating unwanted sound known as noise pollution. Anyigba has over years been known to be an environment in its natural state retaining its nature-given aesthetic until the emergence of urbanization which has changed or reshaped the environment to her present state. On this note, this study seeks to assess the noise and carbon emission levels in Anyigba.
1.1.1 Carbon emission and generator use in Nigeria
Major cities in Nigeria have little or negligible number of trees to trap carbon emissions released within the streets (Stephen, 2011). Gas flaring contributes to climate change, Nigeria flares more natural gas associated with oil extraction than any other country with estimates suggesting that of the 3.5 billion cubic feet of associated gas produced annually. Methane is accompanied by the other major green house gas, carbon dioxide, accounting for 50% of all industrial emissions in the country and 30% of the total CO2 emissions (Friend of the Earth, Nigeria, 2005).
Electrical power is a very important commodity for development of any nation, which Nigeria is not exempted. With electrical energy the people are empowered to work from domestic level, through small scale and medium scale industries to employment in the large scale manufacturing complexes (Ekpo et al, 2011). Most cirties connected to the national electrical power grid have been deprived of electricity for over a decade now due to current power production of about 3000MW of electricity. According to the Nigerian Energy policy report from 2003, it is estimated that the population connected to the grid system is short of power supply over 60% of the time (Okoye et al, 2007). Alternative sources such as electric generators are on the increase among the citizenry due to high demand for power supply (Ibitoye et al, 2007). Many people and companies now supplement the electricity provided by national grid system with their own generators. Infact, as long as you can afford a generator you should have one. Commercial businesses are not left out, according to one approximation; well over 90% businesses utilize generators for day to day operations (Oparaku O.U, 2003). The increasing use of electric generators for both commercial and domestic settings is predicted on the erratic and inadequate power supply in Nigeria. Electrical generators while in operation produce gaseous emissions and high sound level exposing users to a variety of health hazards.
It has become evident that in Anyigba, there is inadequate power supply for both domestic and commercial purposes, this have increased the number of generator users which have led to increase in carbon and noise levels especially in the evening period (7-9pm) in Anyigba.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Man has been of little concern for the environment as that which they will take away from the environment has been his pivotal interest. Myriad anthropogenic activities in Anyigba have led to sinking of economic trees that serves as carbon shield or trap. Also urbanization has ushered in increase in demand for energy for daily activities, vehicles, generators, plants among others that emits carbon can as well generate noise. This is inimical to environmental ethics. Essentially, as increase in carbon is becoming alarming so also decrease in the trap (i.e plants that shields carbon) becoming prevailing activities in Anyigba environs. Carbon emission which is closely related to noise pollution has incessantly been on the increase. Noise is being generated through power generating plants, vehicles engines, horns, construction and industrial noise, religious/worship centres, household noise, honking noise etc.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to Assess Noise and carbon emission level in the evening (7-9pm) in Anyigba. The objectives to achieve the study aim include:
i. To estimate the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from electric generators into the atmosphere in the evening time in Anyigba
ii. To estimate the noise level in the evening time in Anyigba
iii. To assess the effect of noise and carbon emission in the study area
iv. To establish the relationship between noise and carbon emission in the evening time in Anyigba.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
H1: The noise level in Anyigba is within the frame of the FEPA standard acceptable limit with regards to human habitation.
H0: The noise level in Anyigba is not within the frame of the FEPA standard acceptable limit with regards to human habitation.
H1: The CO2 level in Anyigba is within the acceptable threshold.
H0: The CO2 level in Anyigba is not within the acceptable threshold.
H1: There is a significant relationship between noise and carbon emission levels in Anyigba in the evening.
H0: There is no significant relationship between noise and carbon emission levels in Anyigba in the evening.
1.5 Research Questions
This research intends to provide answers to the following questions:
i. What is the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from electric generators in the evening in Anyigba?
ii. What is the noise level or amount of noise generated from electric generators in the evening in Anyigba?
iii. What are the effects of noise and carbon emission levels in the study area?
iv. What is the relationship between noise and carbon emission levels in Anyiga?
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research seeks to assess noise and CO2 emission levels in the evening (7-9pm) in Anyigba. The study will make use of a well structured questionnaire to determine the litres of fuel purchased on daily basis and will then substitute into the United Nation equation to get the equivalent of carbon emission that takes place. Also, noise detector and carbon sensor will be employed to carryout this research.
This study is limited to assessing the level of noise generated and carbon emission from electric generators in the evening in Anyigba (7-9pm). The limitations also includes acquiring needed instrument (carbon sensor and noise detector) for the research, technicality of the instrument (technical know-how) and most importantly time factor, as time given for this research to be carried out is insufficient. Since these instruments are not available, questionnaires will be administered to get data about carbon emission levels and android noise meter application will be used to get data about the noise level in the evening in Anyigba.
1.7 Significance of the Study
There has been increase in the use of generator in Anyigba, it is therefore expected that the level of carbon should be high. It is also known that the number of generator is at its peak during the late evening, hence, higher emission and noise level is expected.
Also, it is important to state that the noise level in the environment is on the increase in the evening time as generators, plants, horns of vehicle, engine mills among others are put into use together in the evening time than any other time of the day. It is on the note that this research is set to be carried out as the result of the research will helps to policy makers and researchers about the changes that have taken place in the study area.
1.8 The Study Area
Anyigba is a town in Okura district, Dekina LGA of Kogi state. The town is located on latitude 7029’02”N, longitude 7011’08”E. The altitude of Anyigba is about 420 meters above the seal level (Ifatimehin and Ufuah, 2006). Relatively Anyigba shares boundary in the north with Iyale ward, Abocho ward to the Northwest, Agbeji ward in the South, Egume ome to the East and Ofugolo in the West, Ojikpadala ward to the south. Anyigba is linked with several communities such as Ojuwo, Olofu, Ojofu, Abuja, and University village, Kaduna Effekpe, Ijebu-Ode, Ajaokuta, Agwudoko, Ofejikpi, Ajetachi and Ogane-aji.
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