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You are here: Home ❯ THE PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF DRUGS USE AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION: A CASE STUDY OF KOGI STATE UNIVERITY, ANYIGBA

THE PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF DRUGS USE AMONG STUDENTS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION: A CASE STUDY OF KOGI STATE UNIVERITY, ANYIGBA

 Format: MS-Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 67   Attributes: Primary Data, Data Analysis

 Amount: 3,000

 Aug 26, 2018 |  09:02 am |  2271

CHAPTER ONE

                                                     INTRODUCTION

1:1   Background to the Study

There is a growing public concern in our country, Nigeria, about involvement of adolescents and young adult in drug abuse, which is defined as the non - medical use of substances by human beings that may modify one or more of its functions and may impair an individual ability to function effectively and may result in social physical or emotional harm. While it is universally accepted that drugs can be of tremendous benefit to man and society, it is also acknowledged that inappropriate use of drugs can be harmful to man .The personal, social and public health problems associated with psychoactive substance use, have continued to arouse worldwide interest and concern. Various reports and researches conducted have illustrated this phenomenon. Drugs/substance abuse is a worldwide hazard with dangerous complications that affect many countries around the globe, Nigeria inclusive. The problem varies from place to place.

The African seminar on problems of drug dependence held in Lagos, Nigeria declared that “Drug abuse and dependence producing substances are widely prevalent in African countries have continue to increase. These problems affect the individual, the family and the society in general. Substance abuse which was originally conceived as the problem of a selected few is today becoming a problem of a sizeable proportion of the world population. The problem is so grave that it has extended beyond the usual characteristic profile of abusers being male, adult, and urban-based to now include females, youngsters and those who live in rural areas. Its economic effect is so devastating that it is estimated that the annual retail cost of psychotropic substances by prescription is over two billion naira while the alcoholic industry which produces over five billion gallons of alcoholic beverages annually generate more than four billion naira from sales to a consumer population of about 30-35 million people.

Illicit Drug traffic known to generate huge profit and fortune and that is one reason why it has been very difficult to combat the drug traffic in spite of several laws that have been promulgated. For instance, it has been estimated that the sum of $400 billion is the turnover of illicit drug industry, which is equivalent of approximately 8% of total international trade and therefore larger than the trade in iron steel, motor vehicle, textile, tourism. Drug abuse and other associated problems constitute a major threat to the survival and effective functioning of human societies, lives are lost daily through addiction and activities of addicts. A significant number of deaths from accidents and violent crimes have been traced to the activities of persons under the influence of drugs. Treatment facilities nationwide are now gradually being over burden with drug-related problems and cases4,7. The need to prevent drug abuse among the general population and by the growing generation of Nigeria thus becomes imperatives.

Nigeria which once served only as trans-shipment route for drugs soon became a “consumer” country when it was observed that the increasing incidence of drug abuse among students is a contributory factor in the ugly confrontation  between school administrators and students. The problem of drug abuse poses a far greater health hazard than most imagine. Psychoactive drugs and substances have the primary effect on the mind such as altering mood, feelings, perceptions and behaviors. These drugs are usually taken to give insulation from the real world and its difficulties. This is accompanied by the feeling that varies according to the drugs used. This is common to those whose personality development is insufficient to enable them cope with the normal life.

One of the hazards of using of drugs/substance to alter mood and feeling is that some individuals eventually develop dependent on the drug. They have diminished flexibility in terms of their behavior toward a particular drug or substance. They became dependent on the drug for their feeling well being. The intensity of this need or dependent may vary from mild desire to a craving or” compulsion to use the drug/substance and when the availability of the drug is uncertain they may exhibit a pre-occupation with its procurements. In extreme form, their behavior exhibits the characteristics of a chronic relapsing disorder, this is a state referred to as” addiction or dependence”. The substances commonly abused include tobacco, alcohol, stimulants like caffeine, nicotine, cannabinoids, amphetamine, volatile solvents like glue, petrol, diethyl ether, chloroform correction fluid, psychotropic medicines such as sedatives, anxiolystics, hypnotics etc. Most of the drugs being abused are beneficial, but also have devastating after effects such as psychosis, paranoid schizophrenia, and chronic addiction with all the implications of mental and physical dependency. Some of the social and environmental contributory factors associated with substance/drug abuse include living away from home, relaxed parental control, alienation from family, early exposure to drugs, peer influence, easy access to the drugs and their availability etc.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Many social, economic and political factors have contributed to the global
spread of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs. In the nineteenth century drugs tended to only be available where they were produced, or very close to the source of production. However, the growth of transportation, tourism and communications in the twentieth century has made it possible to transport goods and people quickly to any part of the world. Drugs too, are being transported to distant places. Given the economic rewards of producing and transporting drugs, it is not surprising that they are available almost all over the world. It has been estimated that the illegal market for drugs is worth between US$ 100$ - 500$ billion worldwide.

Global trends in drug production, transportation and consumption are difficult to describe and assess because of the complexities of the issues involved and the lack of accurate information on what are clandestine activities. Drugs are being produced in increasing numbers, making them more readily available through both legal and illicit channels. A drug culture life style with its own jargon support and maintains its members in their drug-seeking behavior and helps to make the illicit market profitable. There has been a sizeable increase in the production and use of illicit drugs throughout the world. The United Nations International Drug Control Programmers estimate that the global production of coca leaf has more than doubled and that of opium poppies more than tripled since 1 985. Moreover, new forms of existing drugs e.g smoke able” crack” cocaine, changes in the modes of administering these drugs e.g. transitions from opium smoking to heroin injection in South East, Asia) and one introduction and proliferation of now synthetic drugs e.g. DMA “ecstasy” other amphetamine-type stimulants and so called designer drugs all create new or exacerbate Existing substances related problems. Of particular importance is the fact that drug injection has become a major transmission route for HIV of scientific and public health efforts to address these new issues, significant advances in drug abuse epidemiological research methods have been achieved. These advances have included improved techniques to assess the extent of drug related behaviors and problems, but also the introduction and development of methods which aim to understand behavior As much as measure them 41,42,43.Substance abuse is a major social and public health problem. The abuse of one drug-alcohol-currently is one of the major causes of death in the United Sates, ranking only behind coronary diseases and cancer. Substance abuse cost the American economy billions of dollars a year.

Alcohol is one of the most widely abused drugs among youth in Nigerian schools. This is because it is widely available and socially acceptable. The use of alcohol has continued to rise since Nigerian law does not prohibit its production, sales or consumption. Alcohol is one of most widely used and abused substance and is available in all but the most isolated areas of the world or in a few countries on strict religious prohibitions. Although alcohol consumption has recently declined in many developed countries, its use has been increasing in developing countries47. This increase is often occurring in countries with few methods of prevention, control or treatment. Alcohol problems are now occurring in places where they did not exist before. For example, alcohol was not traditionally used in many Asian and Western Pacific counties. However, it now constitutes a serious health problem. In Sri Lanka, for example, 10% of all hospital admissions are alcohol related. Between 1970 and 1980 alcohol consumption increased by about 3.6 % in Asian countries where alcohol is not used traditionally. Also rates of liver cirrhosis increased in wine producing countries such as Hungary, Romania, contrary to the situation of declining rates in many North American and European countries, it was shown how beer consumption has increased in Turkey because of multinational has increased beer companies..

Some Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait and Iran have banned alcohol, but a research on “substance abuse among Iranian male students” shows that 13.5% of them are using alcohol. A research to investigate the rate of substance abuse among Iranian male student shows that 13.5% of them are using alcohol among the 500 students that were randomly selected from schools50. However, in Egypt alcohol is readily available and is used by about 34% of the student population. In Nigeria, alcohol is the most widely abused drug among youth. Alcohol is widely available and socially acceptable. Its use has continued to rise since the law does not prohibit is production, sales or consumption. Alcohol is associated with socialization, therefore, it is not preserve for adult males but also abused by females, adolescent and the youth. A study conducted on parental influence on alcohol among teenagers (age between 11-15 years) in Benin City, revealed that 60% of them started drinking at home, usually during traditional activities or administered by parents as alcohol concoction (mixture of alcohol and herbs).

Another study shows that alcohol related problems were evidence among adolescents in schools. Another survey carried out on the patterns of drug use among 484 randomly selected secondary schools students in Warri and Effurun, 66% of the students both the boys and the girls have had some experience with alcohol. A study on the prevalence of drug use among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis shows that 65% of the 240 students, selected randomly form six schools, abuse alcohol.

The high rate of bear consumption in Nigeria was influence by the opening of beer enterprise production in many states. In 1978 alone, six new bravery plants were opened while nine more were built between 1981-1985. By 1986 however, there were already 30 breweries in Nigeria with production capacity of 16.1 million hectoliters of beer and related drinks and this explains the sudden upsurge of beer consumption from 1986 to date. The increased production of beer and availability of local beverage like ogogoro and burukutu coupled with loose laws which permits the importation of large amounts of foreign alcoholic drinks further compounded the problem. Alcohol and cigarette smoking constitute a more problem to the society than all other psychoactive substance coupled together and it also constitutes a major problem to healthy social and or occupational function.

Another comprehensive study carried out on drinking behavior and social change among secondary school students in Ibadan and Abeokuta, 54% of the sample of 1123 students admitted having use alcohol. 58% of the users were males and 50% were females and the age of their first use of alcohol was estimated as eleven. On a rather larger scale, an International council on alcohol among secondary school students in four states namely Lagos, Oyo, Bendel, and Anambra, the results of these study incriminated alcohol as one of the most commonly abuse drugs by secondary school students, majority of the users eventually graduate to drug dependency which may be manifested while they are in tertiary institutions, hence leading to high prevalence of substance abuse in tertiary institutions. Alcohol use can impair health, its abuse leads to many life-threatening, chronic physical, and emotional illnesses. Alcohol abuse is in reality a potentially fatal illness. Alcohol is the commonest depressant used to ease tension, cause relaxation or help users to forget their problems.

Anxiolytics (barbiturate and benzodiazapam) have continued to be used for their therapeutic efficacy in health care, and therefore they continue to be available for illicit drug use all over the world. The use is becoming high at concerts social function or any event that provides the motivation for use. Since these drugs are easily accessible and readily available from chemists, shops and black market where the drugs may be mixed or have unreliable content, the risk associated with this pattern include accidents occurring during an intoxicated or out of control state, overdose danger because of the trend to mix drugs with alcohol or other depressants, and the potential for addition.

The abuse of tranquilo-sedatives and hypnotics has been increasingly observed in Nigeria. Studies have found that even students abuse these drugs especially the barbiturates and the benzoic diazepines. The use of these drugs was found to be more common among adult females than adult males and their main reason of use if to relieve tension and anxieties. Since these drugs are easily accessible and readily available from chemist shops and from medicine chests drawers in homes, it becomes a drug of choice for students.

Tobacco continues to be the substance causing the maximum health damage globally. According to WHO estimates, there are around 1.1 thousand million smokers in the world, about one-third of the global population aged 15 years and over59. Substantially fewer cigarettes are smoked per day per smoker in developing countries than in developed countries. In the early 1 990s, average adult per capital consumption in developed countries were 2590 versus 1410 in developing countries. However, the gap in per adult cigarette consumption is narrowing. Tobacco is estimated to have caused around three million deaths per year in the early 1 990s, and the death toll is steadily increasing. Unless current trends are reversed, that figure is expected to rise to 10 million deaths per year by the 2020s or the early 2030 (by the time the young smokers of today reach middle and older ages). With 70% of those deaths occurring in developing countries.

A study conducted by Additions foundation of Manitoba on substance use among Manitoba High School Students. Shows that smoking often becomes a strong addition that begins early in life, and according to some literature nicotine is considered a ‘gate way’ drug that precedes and may increase risk for other drug use. Over half of the total number of students (4,680) surveyed had smoked at some point in their lives, with females more likely to smoke than males (60% versus 54%). Smoking rates increase as one gets older. Slightly over 43% of all senior students smoked in the past year, compared with 34% of Junior Students. The average age that students start smoking is 13 years, and there is no difference between males and females in terms of when they started smoking. 52% smoke less than 20 cigarettes in a week, while 18% smoke more than 60 cigarettes in a week. Heavy smoking is more among males than females with 22.8% of males usually smoke more than 60 cigarettes per week, whereas 12.3% of females smoke this amount.

Another study carried out among youths at High risk of dropping out of school in Texas, where 6,724 at risk youth were studied, it shows that 70% of them have used tobacco compared to 45% of the youth not at risk. A study on substance abuse among Iranian students where 500 students were randomly selected from high schools in different regions in Shiraz the capital city of far province and has a population of more than one inclusion shows that cigarette ranked first among of the substances with (36.9%), out of which 26% of them are males and the remaining females both of which are regular smokers50. A clinical paper on cigarette usage was found to be 35% among senior students during a study on patterns of substance abuse among school age children62. In Nigeria tobacco is legal and socially acceptable; therefore it is readily available for youth to commonly indulge in cigarettes smoking. A study on the contribution to the onset of cigarettes smoking among secondary school students shows that 40.5% of the boys and 8.4% of the girls were found to smoke63.

Cannabis sativa (Indian hemp) is illegally cultivated in many parts of Nigeria and is reported to be widely used in Nigeria. Some studies have shown that cannabis is abused by youths from privileged and less privileged socio-economic backgrounds. Reports showed that its use is more common among males than among females. These studies have also identified adolescents and young adults as constituting the risks groups. Surprising, a study found that some children started using cannabis at a tender age of eleven years 53.

Unlike alcohol that is a drink, cannabis is usually consumed by smoking the dried leaves with the seeds. Other method in which cannabis was found to have been used is taking it with alcoholic beverages or use of the leave in the preparation of pepper soup, porridge or tea. Other stimulants that were found to have been abused by Nigerians include amphetamines, caffeine, (kola nut, coffee, tea), narcotic (tobacco cigarette) and lastly cocaine. These drugs because of the soothing effects and the increased sense of well-being that they produce have been found to be commonly abused by adolescents and youths, especially students. It is common to hear students discuss about their usefulness in aiding concentration, alertness and relaxation while they are studying. The use of the minor stimulants such as kola nuts, coffee/tea to which students eventually become psychologically dependent, because of their frequent use and their social acceptance is common.

Heroin and cocaine have been identified as the “New Arrivals” of drugs in Nigerian scene. Heroin accounted for 1.6% of the total admission of drug patients while cocaine Accounted 9.3% in psychiatric Hospital73, 74. Another study rates cocaine and heroin/morphine use as 1.6% and 2.3% respectively among university students 75,76,.

Research Questions

i . What is the level of knowledge of KSU students, Anyigba?

ii. What are the various types of drugs abused by the students?

iii. What are the predisposing factors for drugs abuse among the students?

iv. What are the recommendations to the management on how to minimize the

1.3.1 Significant of the Study

   The field study will go a long way towards highlighting the main causes and effects of drug abuse in Anyigba.

        The study will serve as data to educate planners and researchers.

        The teachers, parent’s students and organizations of the study.

        The necessity to have teenagers make right decisions to pick appropriate friends, view others with value or importance and become better mothers and fathers.

Now that there is much controversy and confusions as regards the causes and effects of drug, this project is very relevant to our moral society to the nation, making(practice suggestions) available to all the appropriate time and become next in priority.

1.3.2 Research Objectives:

i          To assess the level of knowledge of Kaduna Polytechnic student on drugs/substances abuse.

ii.                 To identify the various types of drugs abused by the students.

iii.               To identify predisposing factors for drug abuse among the students.

iv.               In the light of the above findings to make recommendations to the management on how to minimized the problem in the school.

1.3.3 Scope of the Study

The Research study focus on the causes and effects of drug abuse in Anyigba, the research work will cover only few areas in Anyigba, kogi state.

1.4 Definition of Terms

Drugs: These are substances which may modify one or more of body functions1. Drug is a chemical other than those required for the maintenance of normal health which on administration alters biological functions28. The World Health Organization (WHO) scientific group defined a drug as; any substance or product that is used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient. A drug is nay chemical or substances other than food which affects the structure or function of the body of any organism29.

Substances: Includes drugs as well as other compounds which are pharmacologically active, though the two terms drugs and substances have been used interchangeably in this study.

Psychoactive drugs/substances: These are drugs/substances possessing the ability to alter mood, anxiety, behavior, cognitive process or mental tension. They mainly have their effects on the brain and psychological functions.

Drug Abuse: Referred to consumption of drug other than for medical purpose. A drug is abuse when it is obtained illegally or the legally obtained one is misused. Drug abuse is the persistent, excessive and improper use of drug without regard tom medical practice which may lead to body dependence on drug. It is the use of drug when it is not medically necessary, when use of socially acceptable drugs.

Drug Addiction: This is a condition which becomes a costumed to the pharmacological content of a drug and the psychic effect could no longer work on the biological nature of the body unless the content of such drug is increase. Usually addiction leads to dependence since the body mechanism is being destroyed to work naturally28.

Drug dependence: A state psychic and sometimes also physical resulting from the interaction between a living organism and a drug characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take drug on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effect, and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence. Tolerance may or may not be present. A person may be dependent on more than one drug31. Drug dependence is the excessive craving which develops as a result of repeated administration of a drug despite the terrible psychological or physical effects produced by these susbtances32. There are two forms of dependence:

i)                Psychological dependence is a state in which a person’s thoughts, emotions and activities are dominated by the drug to which the person is dependent to the extent that he craves drug when he cannot get a regular supply and in the right quantity.

ii)              Physical dependence: Is a state in which the body is adapted to the presence of the drug and when the administration of the drug is suspended or reduced, various abnormal reactions, typical of each drug occur. These reactions are termed withdrawal or abstinence syndrome.

Tolerance: That is an adaptive characterized by diminished responses to the same quantity of a drug or by fact that a larger dose is required to produce the same degree of pharmacodynamic effects.

Drug control: This is a national and international agreement governing and restricting production, movement and use of a drug to medical and scientific needs in the interest of public health and for the prevention of drug abuse. This is aimed to optimize the risk-benefit ratio.

Youth: Include young adults in their twentieth (20 – 29) years old as well as adolescents in their teens (10 – 19) years. Youth is anybody in the period between early childhood and old age34. It is a period of risk and vulnerability, it is a time of experimentation, exploration, curiosity, a search for identity and risk taking, such risk taking can include the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. It is thins time that young people seek to achieve independence from their parents and to become established as adults. It is a period of changes in the body hormonal, physical, emotional and behavioral changes that make the individuals vulnerable to so many influences.


REFERENCES

Abayomi, O. I. (1992): Absenteeism and Truancy Cross-Cultural Perspectives, Leo-Tina Press Limited Onitsha.

Abdalla U.A. D. Phil (2003) Youth & Drug Abuse in Nigeria: strategies for counseling, management & control: Kano. Book project Group, Department of Education, Faculty of Education, Bayero University (paper presentation).

Abdullahi . S. A (1982) “Historic Role of African Youth and the contemporary challenges.” In Sokoto service vol 3, No 6. pp 10 – 11.

Abdullahi, S. (2000, December): The Use of Traditional Drugs Amongst the Kano Youth; The Case of Gadagir Youth and Drug Abuse Today.

Adegbokun, E.O. et al (1998): Drug Data Collection and Research Report. National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA Production).

Adegbokun, E.O. et al (1998): Drug of Abuse and their Effects. A Publication of NDLEA Lagos.

Adelekan M.L (1989) : self- reported drug use amongst secondary school students in Nigeria, state of Ogun. Bulletin on Narcotic 41, PP(1 09 – 116).

Adeoeye, B (1981), UPE Teacher Education provisional Not Health Education. Ado Ekiti: Omolayo standard press and Bookshop co. (Nig) Ltd.

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