Format: MS WORD Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 68 Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH
This study titled “The Perception of the relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ academic performance in Hausa language of senior secondary schools in Kano metropolis”. The study sought to: determine the relationship between teachers qualification/ certification and students academic performance. Establish the relationship between teachers years of teaching experience and students academic performance. Establish the relationship between teachers knowledge of subject matter and student academic performance. Examine how teachers‟ teaching methods influence student academic performance. In the study, four research questions were raised and answered using the descriptive statistics and four (4) null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A total sample size of 250 SSII students were randomly selected out of population of 9,938 students in all the ss schools in the metropolis. All the seventy five (75) teachers teaching Hausa language in the schools were selected to represent the sample for the teachers. Survey design was used in the study and the instruments for data collection were 40 items questionnaire for teachers and the result of standardized examination for students‟ academic performance. Pilot study was conducted in a school outside the study area and the reliability of the instrument was obtained to be 0.88 using test-re test reliability coefficients. The research questions were answered using the descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and frequency count while the Research hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics such as r-test and F-test (ANOVA). Hypotheses 1, 2 and 4 were all accepted while hypothesis 3 was rejected. The major findings are that, teachers‟ quality has no significant relationship with students‟ academic performance and that teachers „knowledge of subject matter played a significant role in the performance of students and therefore it led to the general conclusion that teachers with deeper knowledge of subject matter produced better students, than those with shallow knowledge of subject matter.
1.1 Background to the study
Education and its benefits can never be over emphasized as the root of economic, industrial, political, scientific and technological, and even religious development. All aspects of development are centered on education.
Education is one of the vital instruments for development in any nation. Every educational system at every level depends heavily on teachers for the execution of its programmes. Teachers are highly essential for successful operation of the educational system and important tools for the educational development.
Teachers at all levels of education play the decisive role in pivoting the growth and the direction of education. It is an acceptable fact that teacher is the most important cog in the educational machine and that teachers are highly instrumental to the success of any educational programme embarked upon by any government. This is because apart from being at the implementation level of any educational policy, the realization of these programmes also depends greatly on teacher‟s dedication and commitment to their work (Adeniji 1999). (Kaplan and Owings 2001) indicate that two broad areas define teacher quality.
Darling-Hammond (2000) states that the characteristics of teacher quality are: verbal ability, subject – matter knowledge, knowledge of teaching and learning the ability to use a wide range of teaching strategies adapted to student needs.
Quality of a teacher is another very influential determinant of the classroom environment (Lundberg and Linnakyla, 1993). A teacher‟s qualities include preparation and training, the use of a particular instructional approach
and experience in teaching. This insight is shared by Mullis, Kennedy, Martin and Sainsbury (2004) who indicate that teacher quality is an important determinant of pupil performance.
The quality of education hinges on the quality of teaching that goes on in the classroom reinforcing the idea that quality teachers make up for the deficiencies in the curriculum and in educational resources (Anderson 1991). Teacher quality is widely thought of as an essential determinants of academic performance, yet there is little agreement as to what specific characteristics make a good teacher (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2006). This is an important issue as the economic impact of higher student achievement can be a function of the depreciation rate of student learning, the total variation of teacher quality (as measured by student achievement on standardized tests), and the labor market return to one standard deviation of higher achievement.
Researchers, policy makers, parents and even teachers themselves agree that teacher quality matters. But defining, measuring and identifying teacher quality is a far more controversial task.
Subject matter knowledge is another variable that one might think could be related to teacher quality. While there is some support for this assumption, the findings are not as strong and consistent as one might suppose. Studies of teacher‟s scores on the subject matter tests of the National Teacher Examination (NTE) have found no consistent relationship between this measure of subject matter knowledge and teacher performance as measured by student outcome or supervisory ratings. Most studies show small, statistically insignificant relationships, between teacher quality and students academic performance.
Secondary education is the pivot around which the development of the nation‟s economy revolves. It is the engine room that provides the input, resources into the nation‟s economy and higher education production systems.
The National Policy on Education (2011 Revised Edition) looks at secondary education thus:
1. Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage.
2. The broad goals of secondary education shall be prepare the individual for
a) Useful living within the society; and
b) Higher education
3. In specific term, secondary education shall :-
a) Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religions or ethnic background;
b) Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles;
c) Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commence at sub-professional grades;
d) Develop and promote Nigerian languages and culture in the context and world cultural heritage;
e) Inspire its students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence;
f) Foster national unity with an emphases on the common ties that unite us in our diversity;
g) Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the values and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live good citizens;
h) Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.
4. To achieve the stated goals secondary education shall be of six years duration given in two stages; a junior secondary school stage and a senior secondary school stage; each shall be of three years duration.
The development of Nigeria‟s education system since independence has been characterized by a rapid expansion. Due to the development or expansion, the registration concerning universal basic education (UBE) claims that access is to be provided for all children by the year 2015. UBE also aims to improve equal and qualitative learning opportunity for all children. How can the nation get a qualitative education? Who is a qualitative teacher?
Research for education and learning (Marzano R, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Teacher effectiveness research is grounded in classroom and often uses classroom – based assessments. However ,the recent Aspen institute report, beyond NCLB (Commission on No child Left Behind, 2007), written to guide the reauthorization of NCLB, defines “effective” in terms of teacher‟s ability to improve student achievement as measured on standardized tests.
Qualitative teacher is the one who selects right approaches to teaching, knowledgeable, intelligent content mastery, hardworking and efficiency, self discipline, tolerant, friendly, who serves as a role model through good characters and manner commitment, respect for profession, dedicated, loyal
and responsible. The current framework for teacher training in Nigeria is based on the NPE (2004) which emphasized on the quality of teachers.
On the other side, students‟ achievement refers to their academic performance. However the research will focus on the qualitative aspect of teachers and its relationship for the performance of students academically.
A good teacher is perhaps the most common and least precise of all terms. Shulman, president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of teaching, describes a good teacher in the following way: in the classroom of a good teacher, students are visible, engaged, attentive and participating. In good teaching, students are responsible for their learning; they are accountable for their understanding. Good teaching is passionate, and it induces an emotional response in students…good teaching starts with inducing habits of mind, but doesn‟t stop there. Good teaching engages practical thinking and problems- solving skills that can be applied in a variety of settings. And good teaching affects students‟ values, commitments, and identities.
As stated above, the definition of teacher quality indicates certain qualities that make a qualitative teacher. There are so many problems that are associated with teacher quality, more especially in our secondary schools. The percentage of the students that pass their final exams that is WAEC & NECO in the last five to six years, the rate of failures in the examination is becoming so alarming. Some elites see the problem as a supply/demand issue: The profession is not attracting the “right” individuals into teaching. Some view the quality problem as a concern about preparation. From this vantage point, teacher who complete university-based programs do not leave with the
appropriate knowledge and practices to be effective in contemporary classrooms.
The Federal Ministry of Education (2006) reporting on Nigeria, revealed that the academic performance of students in the senior school Certificate Examinations conducted between 2000 and 2006 was below fifty percent (50%). The falling standard of education in the nation is becoming so high, more especially in our secondary schools. The students are performing very poorly in their academic performance. Their continuous assessment is poor; their terminal examination is equally very disappointing (“F.C.E Staff secondary school 2009 end of third term examination” report). The performance of Nigerian Secondary School students in external examinations showed 98% failure rate in the 2009 November/ December Senior School Certificate Examinations conducted by the National Examination Council (NECO- SSCE); out of the total number of 230, 682 candidates who sat for the examination, only 4,223 obtained credits level passes and above in five subjects including English and Mathematics (Bello – Osagie & Olugbornila, 2009).
In the 2009 May/ June Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council (WASSCE), only 25.99% of the total number of candidates obtained credit level passes and above in five subjects including English language and Mathematics, while in 2010 May/ June WASSCE, out of the 1,135,557 candidates that sat for the examination, only 337,071 (24.94%) obtained five credit level passes and above in subjects that included English language and Mathematics. (Owadiac, 2010).
Mathematics is one of the compulsory subjects that students must offer in Senior Secondary School not minding whether such students are in Science Commercial, Arts or Social Science class. In Secondary School curriculum according to National policy on education (2004), there are core subjects as well as electives that students must offer.
Majority of Secondary School Students often dread and show negative attitude towards mathematics (Awofala, 2000), and the trends of their achievement in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination is also a source of worry to the stakeholders. For instance the percentage credit pass of students in May/ June WAEC mathematics between 2004 and 2007 is a concern as indicated in the table above.
The public unhappiness becomes more prominent following the annual release of the West African senior school certificate examination result. Students‟ outcomes do not match the government and parental investment. All stakeholders are concerned about why the system is bringing out graduates with poor result. To them, it is questionable whether or not teachers in our
secondary schools, the most important factor in the effectiveness of schools and in the quality of a child‟s education is competent to teach effectively. The national policy of education states that, “No educational system can rise above the quality of teachers in the system.”(FGN, 2006)
The federal government of Nigeria has made several attempts and enacted laws concerning the development of education. Among such attempts is the law concerning the recruitment of teachers this is done in order to achieve educational aims and objectives. This could be achieved if there are qualified teachers to teach at the appropriate level. There is need for this research, in order to achieve educational aims and objectives. This could only be achieved through having qualitative teachers to teach at the appropriate level. There is need for this research, in order to find out if there is any relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ achievements, more especially in these few years that the nation is witnessing the massive failure of (SSCE).
This study aims at determining, whether there is a relationship between quality of teachers and the academic performance of students of secondary schools in Hausa Language.
This study is set to achieve the following objectives:
i. Determine the effect of teachers‟ qualification on students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
ii. Investigate the effect of teacher‟s years of teaching experience on students‟ academic performance in Hausa in some selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
iii. Establish the impact of teacher‟s knowledge of subject matter on students‟ performance in Hausa in the some selected secondary schools of Kano metropolis.
iv. Find out whether teachers teaching methods affect student academic performance in Hausa in selected secondary schools in Kano Metropolis.
The study sought to provide answers to the following research questions:
i. What is the effect of teachers‟ qualification on students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kano Metropolis?
ii. Does teachers‟ year of teaching experience affect students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in secondary schools in Kano metropolis?
iii. What is the impact of teachers‟ knowledge of the subject matter on the performance of students in Hausa language in Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolis?
iv. Do teachers teaching methods affect students‟ academic performance in Hausa language in Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolis?
The following hypotheses were raised for this research;
HO1: There is no significant relationship among students academic performance in Hausa taught by teachers of different qualifications in Senior Secondary Schools in Kano metropolis
HO2: There is no significant relationship among students academic performance in Hausa whose teachers have different years of teaching experience in Senior Secondary Schools in Kano metropolis
HO3: There is no significant relationship between students academic performance in Hausa whose teachers possess knowledge of the subject matter and those whose teachers do not possess knowledge of the subject matter in Hausa in Senior Secondary Schools in Kano metropolis
HO4: There is no significant relationship between students‟ academic performance in Hausa whose teachers uses different methods of teaching in selected Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolis.
The purpose of any educational research is to contribute to the development of knowledge. The research findings would be of great help to the government and other stakeholders by revealing the relationship between the quality of teachers and students‟ academic performance in our schools. This will consequently guide the ministry in adopting a new policy of recruiting teachers i.e. to make sure they recruit qualified teachers who are highly effective i.e. those with knowledge of content, teaching experience, professional certificate and overall academic ability.
The findings will be of benefit to students, most especially those in the post graduate studies, to add more, or to contribute from where the researchers stopped or what is left to be done in the area of study.
The research findings will be of benefit to any individual who is interested in knowing the relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ achievement. The findings will be of great importance and help in conferenc
writing related to the area. It will make teachers plan and present their lesson excellently and also those unqualified teachers to go and further their studies so as to meet the minimum required qualification for teaching.
The research findings will help the society to dictate what is to be included in the curriculum so as to improve the quality of the teachers as well as the students. This study will be of significance to curriculum planners. The information from this study will be of benefit to the curriculum developers of the National policy on education to forestall all the lapses during the course of building.
In the study it is assumed that:
i. There are qualified and unqualified teachers in the schools.
ii. There are experienced and inexperienced teachers in the schools.
iii. The schools have some of the basic materials for learning but lack most of the materials.
iv. Some of the teachers will cooperate with the researcher.
The study is concerned with perception of the relationship between teachers‟ quality and students‟ academic performance. The researcher was restricted to teachers and students of SSII public senior secondary schools of Kano metropolis.
The following are the limitations of the study:
i. The study covered only (8) Eight Local Governments in the Metropolitan part of Kano, hence making it very difficult to generalized the whole schools in Kano State.
ii. Only public senior secondary schools were selected for the study, private schools did not have the opportunity of being included.
This might affect the generalization made on the findings as it affects the population of the study.
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