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Effect of family background on students’ academic performance among senior secondary school students in Eti-Osa LGA, Lagos State.

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 55   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

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 Oct 25, 2019 |  08:06 am |  2748

This research paper investigated the of family background on students’ academic performance of students in Eti Osa local government area of Lagos State. Self-designed structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Random sampling was employed to select 200 students  from 10 schools (2 single sex and 8 co-educational schools) in Eti Osa local government area of Lagos State. The descriptive survey method was used and the research tool  used was questionnaire.Five  research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to assist the research work. The research questions were analysed with mean and standard deviation while the research hypotheses were analysed with t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significant.

The results of the findings showed that parents’ occupation, parents’ level educational background,  family size and residential areas have a significant impact on students’ academic performance while the income of parents  do not have impact on the academic performance of students.

It was therefore recommended that parents need to boast their socio-economic status in order to meet up with their children needs in schoo and  government at both states and federal level should create more jobs and empowerment programme to boast the socio-economic status of parents.



 Background to the Study

Education is a  primary need in  this time of globalization.  Education  does not  only gives insight,  also grooms the personality, inculcate moral values,  add knowledge and give skill.

Education is  necessary owing to  the nature of  competition. In every area, highly qualified people are needed. Battle & Machel (2002), indicated that in  this era of globalisation  andtechnological  revolution, education is  considered as  the first step in every human endeavour.  It plays a  fundamental role in  the development of  human capital and is linked with an  individual wellbeing  and opportunities for better living.

Comments from educators indicated that, the blame from lack of good performance has been as a result of neglect and carefree attitude toward academic work by students and parents. Home is the first school for a child where he/she is taught the basic norms and values by the family before the child leaves for the formal education.

The family is relevant and very significant to the well being of a child as  well as his/her later development in life. Family is the first unit in the social order where the  child’s upbringings began after birth, still in cradle. According to Adewumi et al (2012)  childhood could be liken to a letters impressed in the shout of a young tree, which grow, and  later enlarge into an integral part of the whole. Sequel to the above, rightful beginning  makes the most essential part of every child’s upbringing/education. The contribution of the  parent to the training of the students determines how far he/she will go in life.

It is well noted that when the school work together with the family through learning support system, studentss tends to succeed better not just in schools but in life.  The family is an institution as well as an agent of socialization saddle with the responsibility of determining the students’s attitude towards intellectual, religious, character and moral upbringing. According to Aliyu (2016) the family lays the fundamentals of moral and religious upbringing of the child, and in a way dictate how he/she relate with others regarding the idea of right and wrong , good and bad. The family unit plays the role of helping the studentss in determining his/her future career pursuit through socializing them into their choice of vocation or a trade for self reliance, by exposing the child to either pursue the career of the family or any favorable skill before the child grow to become an adult (Jekayinka and Oke,2003). The family here includes everything that surrounds within the family itself and includes the family background, their socio-economic status, broken home etc. According to Mpiluka (2014), Family backgrounds have been of immense significant in determining the academic achievement of a child in schools all over the world. Specifically because academic achievement often time are motivated by the type of people the child interacts with in their early stages in life from their homes. Muola (2010) observed that family background could be likening to all the conditions and circumstances within the family which influences the child physically, intellectually and emotionally as he/she grow up. The Child that grew up from different family backgrounds are affected differently by such family condition, which are the reasons behind why some children have good family background while others have a very poor background. The differences in our family background are some of the consequences in the variation in pupil’s academic achievement in school.

Family background refers to all the conditions and circumstances in the family which influence the child physically, intellectually and emotionally Muola (2010). Children coming from different family backgrounds are affected different by such family conditions, that is why some children have good family background while some have poor background. Citing fleege, Eke (1999) noted that with some families, the background way vary from time to time for the same individuals.

Nyipin(2010)observed that the parents are parts of the current challenge facing the school system in the world. This is because the parents have often time fail to do their bid at home and by so doing makes many children even at early stage in life resort to self-help as a result of the fact their parents refuse to give them the needed attention they deserved. As a child grew up from infant to toddler and then to a preschooler, he/she learns how to speak, listen, write and read which are later develop in order to make the child to achieve academic performance (Chris and Theisen, 2009). Gadsden (2003) observed that greater parental (family background) involvement at early stage of pupil’s learning process positively affects the pupil’s performance in school. Although, family background includes other variables such as parental socio-economic status, broken homes, family size and types, parental educational background etc all these are some of the determinant of family background.

Many Nigeria students have been a victim of family neglect and therefore continously facing setback in their academic achievement even when the students are enthusiastic about education, they see to be at the mercy of poor and inadequate family upbringing.


1.2  Statement of the Problem

Poor academic performance of students has  been of great concern to educationists,  guidance and counselors in particular  (McCelland, 2000). Despite all guidance  programmes and counseling strategies mounted in schools to improve the students’  academic performances, poor performances are still recorded yearly. Many scholars have researched into likely reasons for the poor academic    performance of students that been an issues of concern by educational stakeholders. Investigation have showed that family background of students is one of the reason that students have been performing poorly. The family background  includes other variables such as parental socio-economic status,  family size and types, parental educational background, parents level of income, parents place of residents etc all these are some of the determinant of family background.These factors operate severally and in different capacity to affect a child’s academic pursuit or school achievement.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect family background has on the academic achievement of secondary school students.

1.3  Purpose of the Study

Generally, the purpose of the study is to find out the effect of family background on students’ academic achievement among senior secondary school students in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Specifically, the purpose of the study is to find out:

1.    The influence of parental level of education on academic achievement of

senior secondary school students.

2.    The influence of parental occupation on students’ academic achievement.

3.    The influence of parental income on students’ academic achievement.

4.    The influence of family size on students’ academic achievement.

5.    The influence of parents’ residential area on students’ academic achievement.

6.    The influence of parents’ socio-economic status on students’ academic achievement.

1.4   Significance of the study

Theoretically, the findings of this study are considered significant because it canhelp in providing empirical information in identifying and explaining the various family background variables and the influence of the variables on students’ academic achievement.

The outcome  of this research as it relates to students teachers and parents would be of particular significance to researchers in the field of education and family studies.

Practically, the finding of this study will be useful to the following: the teachers, students, parents, school guidance counselors, Parents Teachers Association (PTA), educational administrators and the society at large.

The finding of the study will be of immense help to the teachers. The teachers will realize the necessity of individualizing their teaching by structuring their teaching methods and instructional resources to take care of students with varying learning abilitiesThe findings of the study will also help teachers to exercise patience with slow-learners as they vary methods of instruction to accommodate divergent family background. The findings will be of immense importance to students. The students will realize that their poor performance might not necessarily be their fault alone, especially those from low status families. Such knowledge will go a long way to reduce frustration in the students and also reduce drop-outs which occur as a result of frustration. Through the findings of this study, parents will realize the importance of improving their educational standard so as to influence their children’s academic performance. Parents will also understand the need for them to improve their socioeconomic status so as to be able to provide the necessary motivation in form of learning materials and other things which will enhance their children’s learning and their academic performance. They will equally acknowledge the importance of positive motivations and encouragement and provide some, by making the family environment more conducive for their children.The school guidance counselors will also benefit from the findings of this study.

They will be in position to guide and counsel students in the area of personal social interactions, academic performance and career choice.

The findings of the study will help Parents Teacher Associations (PTA) of schools

in promoting the academic performance of student. This is because at PTA meetings,

parents know their functions and responsibilities at home, to help solve their children’s problems both home and school environment.

The findings of the study will be of immense help to educational administrators.

They will use the findings in the formulation of policy that will regulate equal educational opportunities for all children irrespective of their family background in the distribution of equipment, facilities and amenities to schools.

The findings of this study will help the society at large in identifying how family environmental variables such as what parents’ level of education, parents’ income, parents’ occupation, parents’ motivation and family size on student’s academic

performance. This will act as a check on increasing low academic performance among students, occasioned by the fact that some parents, teachers and counselors do not have adequate knowledge/input required of them.

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study.

       I.        How does parents’ occupation influence student’s academic achievement in secondary schools?

     II.        How does parents’ educational background influence student’s academic achievement in secondary schools?

    III.        To what extent does parents’ level of income affect student’s academic achievement in secondary schools?

    IV.        To what extent does family size affect students’ academic achievement in secondary schools?

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance

    I.         There is no significant relationship between parents’ occupation and students’ academic achievement in secondary schools.

  II.         There is no significant relationship between parents’ educational background and student’s academic achievement in secondary schools.

 III.        There is no significant relationship between parents’ level of income and students’ academic achievement in secondary schools.

 IV.         There is no significant relationship between family size and students’ academic achievement in secondary schools.



1.7      Scope/Delimitation of the  Study

For easy data analysis, cost reduction and avoidance of complexity that may arise due to large population , five schools have been selected. In most cases the characteristics of  students are generally similar hence this research findings will be limited to one hundred and fifty (150) students  in public secondary schools in Educational District V,  Amuwo Odofin Local Government Area of Lagos State.


 1.8          Operational Definitions Of  Key Terms

Family Background: The quantitative and qualitative foundation and composition of a family in terms  

  of structure, status class and standard.

Status: The person’s relationship to establish social position in society that varies on terms of prestige.

Class: The person’s location in a society’s economic system resulting in differences in the nature of work, income and wealth.

Socio-Economic Status (SES): An economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education and occupation.

Parenting: The process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. The aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship.

Single Parenting: A parent, not living with a spouse or partner, who has most of the day-to-day responsibilities in raising the child or children.

Two-Parenting Family: A family in which two married adults lived with their joint biological children and responsible for day –to-day responsibilities and care of their children.

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