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Determination of the microbial quality and the physicochemical analysis in swimming pools before and after swimming

 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 63   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Feb 08, 2020 |  04:46 pm |  1563


1.1       Introduction

Water, is undoubtedly, a vital need of man for food and recreation. Water is basic to life on this planet earth, and for man, no substitute has ever been found to serve man in diverse ways that are crucial for mankind’s survival and societal advancement as a whole (Cabelli, 2003; Alico and Dragonjac, 2006).Water is very essential for the survival of humans and other life forms. It is required for human daily activities such as drinking, cooking, washing, bathing and also for agricultural, industrial and recreational purposes (Centre for Environmental Health, 2005).Water is very basic to life and also functions among others, in, transportation, recreation, cooling of irrigation systems, and food production processes (Mackereth et al., 2003).

Swimming pool waters derive their source from natural waters and their portability is greatly enhanced by the frequency with which the water is changed and the use of chlorine as disinfectants. Normally concentrations of chlorine is maintained at about 1 ppm since chlorine of higher concentrations is usually known to irritate the skin and eyes (Alice, 1977; Fair et al., 2001; Cairns and Dickson, 2003). Cairns and Dickson (2003) indicates that water from swimming pools must be odourless, tasteless and clear with freezing and boiling points at 0oC and 100oC, respectively. Water serves as a medium for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms, if not properly handled, leading to waterborne diseases such as cholera, and typhoid fever.

Swimmers can benefit from cardiovascular workout, an exercise that provides cushion for the joints, protection from the harsh impact normally associated with most forms of exercise, movement that gets the heart pumping and muscles working against the resistance of the water (Evans, 2007).

Swimming with increasing effort to gradually increase the heart rate and stimulate muscle activity is easily accomplished in the water. After a dry land workout, swimming a few laps can help the cooling down process and blood movement through the muscles to help the recovery and relaxation as one glides through the water (Luebbers, 2012).

A swimming pool is an artificially enclosed body or basin or concrete tanks or large paved holes containing water constructed, designed, modified, or improved intended for swimming, diving, recreation or instruction and water based recreation and includes condominiums, schools/institutions, motels and hotels (Kuzgunkaya and Yildirim, 2010). Most people choose swimming pools over rivers and streams for its supposedly hygienic nature (Kuzgunkaya and Yildirim, 2010). Thus, they can be found in hotels, guest houses, restaurants, club houses and tertiary institutions, among others.

There are set of operational rules and principles guiding each swimming pool which ensures the portability of the swimming pool and good hygiene maintenance. Some of these operational rules and principles stipulate that before entering the pool, each bather showers with soap; and those having any skin disease are disallowed from using the facility. (Cruickshank et al., 1975) indicated that pathogenic microorganisms may infect swimming pools directly or indirectly through the entry into the pool by sewage, soil, contaminated air, dust, and rain water.                  Furthermore, swimming pool users with infections may pollute the pool water with micro-organisms, through secretions from the nose and throat, skin, mouth, urine, accidental faecal release or by contaminated objects and clothes, airborne contamination, incoming water from unsanitary source, and droppings from birds (Sule and Oyeyiola, 2010).

1.2       Justification

Recreational use of water can deliver important benefits to health and well-being, yet, there may also be adverse health effects associated with recreational use, if the water is polluted or unsafe. For most swimming pools in Ado-Ekiti, the pool’s capacity is determined by the number of people present for an occasion. There is little data if any on the quality of water in swimming pools in Ado-Ekiti. Water treatment (disinfection) and survive longer in the environment posing a public health risk. In view of the serious health risk posed by swimming pools, there is a sense of urgency to identify the type of microorganisms in our pools with emphasis on suspected microorganisms so that appropriate measures could be taken to ensure that health risks related to bacteria in pool water can be significantly reduced or minimized if not completely eliminated.

1.3       Objective of the Study           

1.3.1    Main Objective

The study was conducted to determine the microbial quality and the physicochemical analysis in swimming pools before and after swimming in Ado-Ekiti.

1.3.2    Specific Objectives

The study had the following specific objectives:

i.                    To determine the physico-chemical properties (transparency, colour, temperature, pH, chlorine, nitrite, conductivity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, and total dissolved solid) of water in the pools.

ii.                  To identify the presence of E. coli, total and coliforms and total bacterial count in the water

iii.                 To isolate and perform biochemical test and antibiotics test

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