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PREVALENCE OF WATER-BORNE DISEASES: A CASE STUDY OF LABORATORY RESULT FROM KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC CLINIC, LOKOJA BETWEEN JULY 2018- MARCH 2019

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 50   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  09:10 am |  2144


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                

Approval Page                                                                         

Dedication                                                                              

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Abstract                                                                                  

Table of contents                                                                    

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the study                                                  

1.2 Cause of water-borne diseases                                          

1.3 Mode of infection                                                              

1.4 Aims and objectives of the study                                       

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature Review                                                              

  CHAPTER

3.1 Materials and method                                                       

  CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Results and discussion                                                     

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Conclusion and Recommendation                                    

References

ABSTRACT

The failure to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation services to all people is perhaps the greatest development failure of the 20th century. The most egregious consequence of this failure are the high rate of mortality among young children from preventable water-related diseases. This paper examines different scenarios of activities in the international water arena and provides three estimates of the overall water-related mortality likely to occur over the next two decades. If no action is taken to address basic human needs for water, as many as 135 million people will die from these diseases by 2020 even if the explicit millennium goals announced by the United Nations in 2000 are achieved. Given current international commitments, between 34 and 76 million people will perish from water-related diseases by 2020. This problem is one of the most serious public health crisis facing us, and deserves far   more attention and resources than it has received so far.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Water-borne diseases are parasite associated in intermediate organisms living in contaminated water. Water-borne diseases remain a major concern in much of the developing world.

         A wide range of water problems faces nations and contamination. Unsustainable use of ground water, ecological degradation, and the threat of climate change. At the heart of World Bank problem however is the failure to provide even the most basic services for billions of people and the devastating human health problems associated with that failure.         

          The United Nations, in collaboration with individual nations, regular monitors access to water and sanitation. The most recently completed assessment, published in 2000 by the World Health Organisation (WHO 2000) is the most comprehensive to date, providing information for 89 percent of the world’s population.

          According to this assessment, 1.11 billion lack access to “improved water supply” and more than 2.4 billion lack “improved sanitation”. Previous assessments were released in 1994, 1990 during the international safe drinking water supply and sanitation decade of the 1980s.

         Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. In 2010, malaria caused an estimated 655,000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 537,000 to 907,000), mostly among African children. Malaria is preventable and curable.

          Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.

          Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected. Malaria mortality rates have fallen by more than 25% globally since 2000, and by 33% in the WHO African region. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa, where a child dies every minute from malaria. Malaria is caused by plasmodium parasites. 

          The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected anopheles mosquitoes called “malaria vector”, which bites mainly between dusk and dawn. There are four parasite species that cause malaria in humans.

They are:

  1. plasmodium falciparum
  2.  plasmodium vivax
  3. plasmodium malariac
  4. plasmodium ovale

Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by infection with schistosome parasites. Schistosomes are important digenean parasites of human and livestock.

 

Globally, schistosomiasis ranks second among parasitic diseases of socio-economic and public health importance. Bilharzia is the most important of these helminth infections and is caused by members of the genus schistosoma. Those parasites are important pathiogens, estimated to be infecting some 200 million people in tropical and sub-tropical regions.

 

The most important species that infect man are:

  1. S. japanicum
  2. S. mansoni
  3. S. haematobium

Work in our group concentrates on S. mansoni. Infection occurs through contact with fresh-water that contains infective cercariac released from an intermediate host snail. The cercariac penetrates intact human skin and transforms into migrating schistosomalum larva, then migrates through the blood stream to the hertipertal system to complete the parasites life cycle.

 

Penetration of the skin by the cercaria usually from species unable the develop in man, particularly cercaria of species of avian schistosoma, may result in a form of dermatitis, cercarial dermatitis, through this is not as important in terms of pathology as egg-induced pathology.

 

 

Schistosoma is the life-threatening prevention of the disease is case tonight with the additional information that another patient from the mulke is under male and female worms differentiate pair and migrate into the small venules, draining the intestine (s. mansoni, s.japacicum) or the bladder (s.haematobium) in these sites, and fully exposed to the host immune system. Adult worms live for 3 to 8 years, although cases have been reported of individuals still excreting parasite eggs 30 years after leaving a schistosome endemic area. The female worm produces 300 to 3000 eggs each day.

 

Eggs pass into the lumen of the intestine or bladder and if deposited in fresh water, hatch to release ciliated miracidia that infect the snail host. However, many eggs also lodge in the definitive host’s liver and intestine or bladder, where they cause the pathology associated with schistosomiasis in the chronic farm.

 

The egg trapped in the liver elicit the development of the cellular, granulomatons reaction which with it ensuring fibrosis, gives rise to the most serious symptom of infection.


Hepatosplenic disease associated with s. manson infection results from liver-portal track fibrosis. The progressive fibrosis can lead to obstructive vescular lesion, portal hypertension, ascites and fetal bleeding from oesophagogastic varices.

 

1.2    CAUSES OF WATER-BORNE DISEASES

  1. Water-borne diseases are caused by the ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal faeces or urine containing pathogenic bacteria or viruses includes cholera, typhoid, amobic and bacillary dysentery and diarrhoeal disease.
  2. They are caused by poor personal hygiene and skin or eye contact with contaminated water; including scabies, trachoma and flea, lice and tick-borne diseases.
  3. They are caused by parasites found in intermediate organisms living in contaminate water, which includes dracunculiasis, schistosomiasis, and other helminths.
  4. They are also caused by insect vectors, especially mosquitoes that breed in water, including dengut, filamasis, malaria, onchocerciasis and yellow fever.

 

1.3    MODE OF INFECTION

  1. They infect during insufficient clean water for washing and personal hygiene or when there is contact with contaminate water. These include trachoma, typhus and diarrhoeal diseases that can be passed from person to person.
  2. They infect by drinking contaminated water, particularly contamination by pathogens transmitted from human excreta.
  3. The disease spread by insects that breed or feed near contaminated water such as malaria, onchocerciasis and dengue fever. 

1.4                 AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. The objective of this study is to see how humans and animals survived the challenges associated with water-borne diseases.
  2. To give solution to public health crises facing us, and deserve far more attention and resources than it has received so far.
  3. To provide safe water and adequate sanitation services to all people.
  4. To provide adequate information about the prevalence of water-borne diseases.
  5. Also, to see how to prevent and eradicate the causes and the spread of water-borne diseases.
  6. Finally, to reduce the consequence of this failure of high rate mortality among young children.

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