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 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 60   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  09:07 am |  2166


Title page                                                                                

Approval page                                                                                   




Table of contents                                                                    



1.0 Introduction                                                                      

1.1 General Uses of Water                                                       

1.2 Qualities/characteristics of clean or pure water      

1.3 Contaminants that can be found in water                        

1.4 Aims and objectives of the study                                       



2.0 Review of related literature                                      

2.1 Necessity of purifying drinking water                        

2.2 Common methods for purifying drinking water                

2.2.1 Boiling Method                                                              

2.2.2 Filtration method                                                           

2.2.3 Chemical treatments                                                      

2.2.4 Ultraviolet purification                                                      

2.3 Storage of drinking water                                        

2.3.1 Aeration                                                                                  

2.3.2 Flash Mixing                                                                           

2.3.3 Flocculation                                                         

2.3.4 Settling                                                                                   

2.3.5 Filtration                                                                                 

2.3.6 Additives                                                                                 

2.4 Threats to clean water                                                       



3.0 Methodology                                                                     

3.1 Reconnaissance survey                                                     

3.2 Sources of data                                                                           

3.3 Sampling technique                                                                   

3.4 Statistical technique                                                                   

3.5 Primary source of data                                                      

3.6 Secondary source of data                                                  

3.7 Method of water analysis                                                  



4.0 Analysis and presentation                                                          

4.1 Result                                                                                         

4.2 Discussion                                                                                 



5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation                   

5.1 Summary                                                                                   

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                 

5.3 Recommendations                                                            



The physico-chemical properties of waters sample from different parts of Felele metropolis were carried out. The values of the physico-chemical properties vary significantly except for the temperature, colour, chlorine and the dissolved oxygen which are closely related. The metal concentration has a mean value of (660.6mg/c) of nitrate, (14.12mg/c) of nitrate and (0.3mg/c) of iron, where iron is at the maximum level of the World Health Organisation (WHO) limit. All these values are above the acceptable limits for potable water in the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for the quality of drinking water. Recommendations are made with respect to providing adequate check-ups to various factories of water supplies.  



Water is life for all living things, be it plants or animals. Potable water is essential for survival. But water from all sources of water is not safe for consumption.

          Potable water or drinking water is water that is supplied for human consumption. The purity of potable water is a major concern.


          It must comply with the scientific standard set for safe consumption, so that people drinking it should not suffer from immediate or long term health effects. In short, it should meet the state and local water quality standards.


          The United States is kwon to have one of the purest water supplies in the world. But in many other countries, people still suffer from acute or chronic illness due to drinking of contaminated water (Sandlyarani, 2011). 


          Water is used for human domestic purposes and for agriculture. There are many uses of water like drinking, washing clothes and utensils, cleaning and many more things. Water is very important in our life. We cannot live without water.

          Water is our most precious resource. Water is vital to life, human, plants, and animals are made up of mostly water. All living things would die if it were not for water we use water for growing our food.

          Water is used by industries to generate electricity manufacture things and transport people and goods.

          Water is also used for watering lawns beds and vegetable gardens, as well as washing ears and filing swimming pools. It also use for fire fighting, street cleaning, and watering public areas such as parks grass, trees, Shrubs and flowers. Water is also used at schools and libraries.

          Water is also used to cool the air. It is an important element in many products like chemical, drugs, lotions, shampoos, cosmetics, cleaners and also beverages.



          The state of drinking water supplies can be qualified by fours important characteristics refers to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species ands or to any human need or purpose it is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed.


          Hundreds of contaminant can occur in drinking water. They can be grouped into four basic categories; microbial, inorganic, organic, and radiological.

-                      Microbial Contaminants: - Include bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These are living organisms that are visible in water only with the help of high powered microscope.

-                      Turbidity refers to fine particle of clay, silt, sand organic matter, or other material that might reduce the clarity of water. Turbidity makes water unappealing to drink because of muddy appearance.

-                      Coliform bacteria are large group of bacterial that occur throughput the environment. They are used as an indicator organism to indicate the potential for disease –causing bacteria to be present in water.

-                      Corrosive water: Is a term used to describe oppressive water that can dissolve materials which it groups in contact. Symptoms of corrosive water problem include material taste, bluish-green stains in sink, and bathtubs, and in serve cases, small leaks in the plumbing system.

-                      Iron: Is a common natural problem in groundwater and has a secondary drinking water standard of 0.3 Mgil Iron does not cause health concern but causes aesthetic problems such as metallic taste and orange brown stain.

-                      Manganese (mn): Manganese does not cause health concerns but cause aesthetic problems such as objectionable taste of blackish water stains.

-                      Faecal coliform bacterial are a smaller group of bacteria with in the caliform bacteria group.

In ancient Greek and Sanskirt (India) writing dating back to 200 BC, water treatment include were recommended. People back them knew that heating water might purify it and they were also educated in Sand and gravel, boiling and satiny. The major motive for water purification was better tasting drinking water, because, people could not yet distinguish between foul and clean water.

Turbidity was the main during force between the earliest water treatment and polished lenses and thereby achieved greater magnification. The invention enables scientists to watch tiny particles in water. In 1676, Van Leeuwenhoek first observed water micro organisms.

In 1700s the first water fitters for domestic application were applied. These were made of wool, sponge and charcoal. In 1804 the first actual municipal water treatment plant designed by Robert Thom, and cart distributed the water. Some three years later, the first water pipes were installed.


The superstition was made that every person should have access to safe drinking water, but it would take somewhat longer before this was actually take brought to practice in most countries.


In 1854 it was discovered that a cholera epidemic spread through water. The outbreak seemed less severe in areas where sand fitter were installed. British scientist John Snow found that the direct cause of the out break was water pump contamination by sewage water. He applied chlorine to purify the water, and this paved the way for water disinfection.


Since the water in the pump had tasted and smelled normal, the conclusion was finally drawn that good taste and smell alone do not guarantee safe drinking water. This discovery led to government starting to install municipal water filters (sand fitters) and chlorination) and hence the first government regulation of public water.


In the 1890s America started buildings large sand out be a success. Instead of slow sand filtration, rapid sand filtration was now applied. Fitter capacity was improved by not much was known about micro organism or chemical contaminants



After 1500 BC, the Egyptians first discovered the principle of coagulation. They first applied the chemical alum for suspended particle settlement. Pictures of this purification technique were found on the wall of the tomb of Amenophis II and Ramses II.

After 500 BC, Hippocrates discovered the healing powers of water. He invented the practice of sieving water, and obtained the first bag fitter, witch has called the Hippocratic sleeve. The main purpose of the bag was to trap sediments that caused bad tastes or odours.

During the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD), water supply was no longer as sophisticated as before. These centuries where also known as the Dark age because of a lack of scientific innovations and experiments.


After the fall of the Roman Empire enemy forces destroyed many aqueducts, and others were no longer applied. The future for water treatment was uncertain.



Then, in 1627, the water treatment history coordinated as Sir Francis Bacon Standard experimenting with seawater desalination. He attempted to remove self particle by means of an unsophisticated form of sand filtration. It did not exactly work but if did paved the way for further experiment by other scientists.

Experiment of two Dutch spectacle makers experimented with object magnification led to the discovery of the microscope by Antonie Van Leewenkvek in the 1670s. He grinding cleaning it with powerful jet steam. Subsequently. Dr Filler found that rapid sand filtration worked much better when it was replaced by coagulation and Sedimentation techniques.


Mean while, such water borne unless as cholera and typhoid become less and common as water chlorination won terrain throughout the world. But the victory obtained by the invention of chlorine did not last long.


After some time the negative effect of this element were discovered. Chlorine vaporizes much faster than water, and it was linked to the aggravation and cause of respiratory disease. Water experts started looking for alternative water disinfectants.


In 1902 calcium hypo chlorite and ferric chronicle were mixed in a drinking water supply in Sequim, resulting in both coagulation and disinfection. In 1906 Ozone was first applied as a disinfectant in France. Additionally, people started installing home water filter and shower filter to prevent negative effects of chlorine in water.

In 1903 water suffering was invented as a technique for water desalination. Cations were removed technique for from water by exchanging them with sodium or other cations, in ion exchangers.


Eventually, starting 1914 drinking water standards were implemented for drinking water supplies in public traffic, based on conform growth. It would tale until the 1940s before the drinking water standard applied to municipal drinking water. In 1972, the clean water Act was passed in the United States. In 1972, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was formulated. The general principle in the develop world now was that every person had the right to safe drinking water.

Starting in 1970, public health concerns shifted from water borne illnesses caused by disease causing micro organisms, to anthropogenic water pollution such as pesticide residues and industrial sludge and organic chemicals. Regulation now focused on industrial waste and industrial water contamination, and water treatment plants were adopted.


Techniques such as aeration, flocculation, and active ear ban adsorption were applied reverse osmosis was added to the list risk assessments were enabled after 1990.  Water treatment experimentation today mainly focuses on disinfection by products.

An example of trihalomethane (TH) formation from chlorine disinfection. These organics were linked to cancer. Lead also becomes a concern after it was discovered to corrode from water pipes the high PH level of disinfected water enable corrosion. Today, other materials have replaced many lead water pipes.



          The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriology and physico-chemical quality of drinking water. It is also to determine with the WHO drinking water directive. The aim is also to determine physico-chemical composition of water intended for human consumption in several rejoin.

          The major aim and objective of chosen this topic as a research work is to determine the bacteriological contents or quality of a potable water for the consumption and different other areas in which water can be used.

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