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DETERMINATION OF ACID FAST BACILLI IN THE SPUTUM OF SOME STUDENTS IN KOGI STATE POLYTECHNIC LOKOJA

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 60   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  08:53 am |  2160

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                          

Certification                                                                                     

Dedication                                                                              

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Abstract                                                                                            

Table of Content                                                                     

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                           

1.1     Aim                                                                                         

1.2     Objective                                                                                 

1.3     Statement of problem                                                    

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0        Literature Review

2.1     Sputum

2.2     Bacillus and its classification

2.3     Industrial significance

2.4     Clinical significance

2.5     Scientific classification of bacillus

2.6     Disease caused by the bacillus

2.7     History of tubercle bacillus

2.8     Tuberculosis

2.9     How does a person get tuberculosis

2.10   Factor that led to contact of tuberculosis

2.11   Symptom of tuberculosis

2.12   Diagnosis of tuberculosis

2.13   Treatment of tuberculosis

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Methodology

3.1     Collection of specimen

3.2     Bronchoscopy

3.3     Induction of specimen (clean and watery)

3.4     Gastric washing

3.5     Material Used

3.6     Preparation for the test

3.7     Procedure


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result and discussion]

4.1     Result

4.2     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendation

          References

ABSTRACT

The determination of Acid Fast  Bacilli in the Sputum of some student in Kogi State Polytechnic was  carried out microscopically with several specimen in which two out of several specimen give a positive result while other shown a negative result.


CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

          Acid Fast Bacilli is the causative agent of tuberculosis. Acid fast bacilli are mycobacterial that stay stained even after they have been washed in a solution. There are many kind of Acid fast bacilli; and there is an importance genus (tribe) of rod- shaped bacteria or bacilli called the mycobacterium.

 

          Myco-bacteria tuberculosis cause tuberculosis (TB), and mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy. They are often called tubercle bacillis and leprosy bacilli. Tuberculosis is usually a disease of the lungs, and tubercle bacilli can often be found in the spatum. Leprosy is usually a disease of the skin and nerves, so we look for leprosy bacilli in smear made from small cut in the skin.

         


          Infact, there are many several species of bacillus such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus Cereus e.t.c these varieties of bacillus also cause a varieties of diseases such as Anthrax, Pneumonia, Leprosy e.t.c but among of these disease the only one that it causative agent can be found in the smear of sputum is tuberculosis.

          Even though tuberculosis and leprosy harm different parts of the body they are like one another in several ways in both of them the infection may start when the patient is a child. Both are usually chronic diseases lasting many years which cause severe disability if they are badly treated or if treatment is started too late.

          Acid Fast Bacilli can be determined microscopically when the specimen is stained with dyes. The result of the smear examination can be used to determine the infection of the patient. Patients who have traces of tubercle bacilli in their sputum have positive smear.


          Patients who have positive smear considered infections because they can cough bacilli into the air. When AFB is seen in a smear, They are counted. There is a system for reporting the number of AFB that is seen at a certain magnification.

          According to the number of AFB seen, the smears are classified as 4+, 3+, 2+ or 1+ in smear classified as 4+ is 10 times many than smear of 3+ of AFB and also 3+ smear of AFB is 10 times as many than 2+ smear of AFB and finally 2+ smear of AFB is 10 times as many than 1+ smear of AFB.

          Smear that are classified are considered moderately positive. If very few AFB are seen, the smear is classified by the actual number of AFB seen (no plus sign).

 

          For example, if only 4 AFB were seen in the entire smear, the sear is classified as “4 AFB seen” smear classified in this way are considered weakly positive finally, if no AFB are seen, the smear is called negative but a negative smear does not rule out the possibility of TB because there can be AFB in the smear that were not seen.

          It take a few hours to prepare a smear for a sputum sample for the examination of Acid Fast Bacilli, hence the examination could be down within a day but worthy precaution must be taken in  handling sputum sample to avoid been contaminated with the organism.

 

          There are many kinds of acid fast bacilli as I have said before, but mycobaterial and mycotuberculosis are the most infections one. If after using the Ziehl Neelson method of staining sputum, any smear that does not confirm with this method of staining is not Acid Fast Bacilli Organism.

         

          Mycobacterial tuberculosis can also be determine in a sputum by culture and sensitivity method, these can be done when Ziehl – Neelson method have failed.

 

         


          Sensitivity test is a method used to find out which drugs can be used to kill the mycobacterial that are infecting a patient; tuberculosis can easily be cured if patients are diagnosed easily and if they take their drugs regularly.

Mycoleprosy is slightly less acid fast than mycotuberculosis. Films form leprosy patients are therefore stained for a long time with carbonfuchin than firms from patients with tuberculosis and are decolorized with a weaker acid – alcohol.

 

1.1    AIM

          The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of ACID FAST BACILLI in the Sputum Sample.

 

 


1.2    OBJECTIVE

          The objective of this practical is to evaluate technical quality and result of smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the sputum.

 

1.3    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria as a nation is a member of international organisation such as UNICEF, WHO and other international health organisations with the goal health for all and eradication of transmittable and killer diseases such as TB, Measles, Small pox, HIV/AIDS to mention a few.

          So the determination of the prevalence of Acid Fast Bacillis (AFB) mycobacterium tubercule which is the causative agent of Tuberculosis in the students of Kogi State polytechnic, Lokoja is very timely and paramount as this will go along way of enlighten the students of their TB status thereby helping in curtailing the scourge of this disease.

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