Format: Microsoft Word Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 100 Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.1 Introduction and Theoretical Framework
2.2 Concept of Project Monitoring
2.3 Method of Project Monitoring in Nigeria
2.4 Project Monitoring Procedure in Kogi State Ministry of Works
2.6 Impact of Project Monitoring on Infrastructural Development
2.7 Achievement of Project Monitoring
2.9 Appraisal and Summary of Literature Review
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Size and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection
3.6 Validity of Instrument
3.7 Reliability of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
4.3 Discussion and Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4 Recommendations for Further Studies
One of the most serious problems facing the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development particularly in Kogi State is the challenge of effective project monitoring. Hence, the need to embark on this study is highly imperative. This project highlights poor project conception and definition, poor budget and stakeholder management, as well as inadequate monitoring and evaluation as major causes of these failures. In order to get relevant information, two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires were distributed among the respondents in the study area of which two hundred (200) were correctly filled and returned. The respondent’s views were analysed appropriately and the findings were explained. However, it has been shown that in spite of huge amounts earmarked for infrastructural projects in Kogi State, the desired outcome/benefits are not attained in many cases. This has been attributed to poor adherence to project management principles in the conception, design, and execution of these projects. From the recommendations, it is shown that failure in the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development in Kogi State can be minimized through the integration of good project management principles in the planning, design and execution of projects, supported by a robust monitoring and evaluation procedure.
Sustainable infrastructural development has evolved as a paradigm to balance the developmental needs of man and to ensure that economic development is achieved without compromise to the environment and with due respect to delicate social balance. With the signing of a few global pacts worldwide, such as Agenda 21, there is a growing recognition that the quest for sustainable infrastructural development is an inevitable responsibility for governments at all levels – federal, state and local – wishing to maximize the wealth of its present and future population.
This responsibility is no less important for developing countries, given a number of factors, such as: rapid urbanization, decaying infrastructures, heavy regulation, little growth in productivity with chronic budget deficits, a preoccupation with meeting the needs of the present by all means, with resulting environmental degradation and exploitation. Therefore, to ensure rapid growth, a number of measures have been advocated. A major development theory advocates for neo-liberalism, which is epitomized by government pulling out from direct provision in favour of emerging as a facilitator or enabler of private sector driven participation, as the panacea to underdevelopment in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.
Developing countries, in turn, are widely accepting this call and in many nations, some form of deregulatory agenda is being established. The most important outcome of this deregulatory agenda is the emergence of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) as the preferred delivery mechanism for major sustainable infrastructural projects.
Infrastructure can be described generally as large social overhead capital; such as roads, ports, hospitals, bridges, sewer facilities, airports, electricity generation and distribution, and communication networks. These infrastructures provide the basic framework for a state to support essential public services in order to achieve higher economic growth and better quality of life.
Therefore, the ability of Kogi state to provide and effectively monitor the availability of sustainable infrastructures is a direct indicator of the attitude of the state government towards overall development of the state. This is primarily a differentiating factor between the various levels of development worldwide and between one state and another in a country. Based on this premise, the developed world is able to transform not only their domestic economic growth but also increase their competitiveness in the world market due to robust economic development policies (Djiofack-Zebaze & Keck, 2009).
The provision of sustainable infrastructural development in the state has often been perceived to be the direct responsibility of government alone due to the large social overhead costs and in fact to the high degree of social and economic externalities that they generate. The essential concept of infrastructure is a simple one – infrastructure is a set of assets needed to supply certain desired services. For example, it is the capital stock needed to generate electrical services, or the land transport assets needed to supply (land) mobility and access services.
Usually, the provision of sustainable infrastructure assets in a state often involves externalities (effects on other parties) i.e. host community, contractors, project supervisors, government ministries and/or agencies, donor agencies etc, which require effective project monitoring. Effective project monitoring is, therefore, necessary to militate against shoddy job execution and/or outright abandonment of projects by some unscrupulous contractors.
Hence, regulatory bodies are usually established by statute law, hence the name “statutory regulation”. Moreover, some governments preclude private sector initiatives in this areas, largely because it is felt, that private provision of basic infrastructure could be usury and discriminatory. In particular, it is often argued that most beneficiaries of these infrastructure are poor and cannot afford to pay economic rents, despite the fact that income transfer to them through these projects are desirable and essential.
Successful delivery of sustainable infrastructural projects is hinged on the quality of human resources that will be assembled, and in as much as effective project monitoring is the most viable team saddled with the responsibility needed to deliver project objectives successfully, it is important that there exists within the state a steady and reliable stream of project management manpower, who by training and education, delivers the essential project outcomes important to stakeholders.
One of the most serious problems facing the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development particularly in Kogi state is the challenge of effective project monitoring. The problem could be traced to a number of factors, which include but not limited to:
i) Non-inclusion of project monitoring in project planning, design and development. Most of the time, project monitoring is only incorporated during project as a contingency item because there is no project monitoring plan when project was conceptualized.
ii) Project supervision is mostly confused with project monitoring services. The job specification and scope of services are not defined.
iii) Poor project documentation, lack of properly defined key performance indicators, incomplete design, vague contract conditions etc.
iv) Beneficiaries are not actively involved in the planning, implementation of projects particularly constituency projects.
v) Fraudulent intention of project executors will try to frustrate effective project monitoring particularly when they are not complying with specifications.
vi) Lean budget for project monitoring leading to cutting corners and the use of employees to cut corners.
vii) Security and environmental risk sometimes planned by aggrieved stakeholders.
viii) Lack of properly registered professional body to regulate the practice including continuous professional development and standardization.
ix) No established rules, regulations and legislation to enforce the product, report etc emanating from project monitoring.
This study is undertaken with the main purpose of examining the impact of project monitoring on the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development in Kogi state, with special reference to Kogi State Ministry of Works, Lokoja.
Aside this main purpose, the researcher also has these specific objectives to achieve which include:
i. To ascertain the availability or otherwise of effective project monitoring of sustainable infrastructural projects in Kogi state.
ii. To examine the challenges experienced in effective project monitoring in kogi state.
iii. To discover the benefits of effective project monitoring in Kogi state.
iv. To examine the relationship between project monitoring and project evaluation.
v. To offer useful recommendations on how the identified project monitoring related problems in Kogi State Ministry of Works, Lokoja can be addressed.
This study is necessitated by the urge and the need for the researcher, readers and organizations in general to understand the impact of project monitoring on the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development in Kogi state. The following are the significant aspects of the study:
i. It will provide a useful tool to the Ministry of Works, Lokoja in particular on the importance and inevitability of effective project monitoring in view of its beneficial impact.
ii. Similarly, it will provide a means of enlightenment to the general public on the need to have effective project monitoring team for every infrastructural project in the state and the need to give maximum support to such a team to ensure the realization of their job.
iii. To serve as a guide to corporate individuals, organizations and students alike in furtherance of their research on the subject matter
The research questions are as follows:
i. How effective is project monitoring to sustainable infrastructural projects in Kogi State?
ii. What are the challenges experienced in effective project monitoring in Kogi State?
iii. What are the mechanisms put in place for effective project monitoring in Kogi State?
iv. Why do we still have substandard and abandoned project in Kogi State?
v. What are the benefits of effective project monitoring in Kogi state?
1.5.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Research hypothesis formulated for this research work are as follows:
i. H0: Project monitoring is not effective in sustainable infrastructural projects in Kogi State.
H1: Project monitoring is effective in sustainable infrastructural projects in Kogi State.
ii. H0: There are no challenges experienced in effective project monitoring in Kogi State.
H1: There are challenges experienced in effective project monitoring in Kogi State.
iii. H0: There are no mechanisms put in place for effective project monitoring in Kogi State.
H1: There are mechanisms put in place for effective project monitoring in Kogi State.
iv. H0: We do not have substandard and abandoned project in Kogi State.
H1: We do have substandard and abandoned project in Kogi State.
v. H0: There are no benefits of effective project monitoring in Kogi state.
H1: There are benefits of effective project monitoring in Kogi state.
The study is restricted to the impact of project monitoring on the achievement of sustainable infrastructural development in Nigeria with special reference to Kogi State Ministry of Works, Lokoja. Findings and recommendations from the study may not be applicable to all states in Nigeria as the researcher could not reach out to other states in Nigeria due to time and financial constraints.
The study was confronted with some limitations, which include:
ð Finance: It was no doubt a great limiting factor for this project considering the worldwide economic recession and the particular financial squeeze within the country. All these combined as a serious limitation to the research work.
ð Time Limit: There is also limited amount of time in the course of investigation. This is based on the fact that the researcher had other tasks to perform. These include assignments in the school, going for lectures, preparation for tests, examinations to mentioned but few. The school authority imposed a time limit in the submission of the completed work. Based on the submission of the completed work, the project will cover those areas that are very crucial to the problems under investigation.
ð Lack of Trust: Another limitation is that the researcher was not permitted to make use of certain documents for security purpose because the Kogi State Ministry of Works, Lokoja would not like its secret to be leaked.
Project Monitoring: This can be defined as the ongoing process by which relevant stakeholders obtain regular feedback on the progress being made towards achieving their goals and objectives. It is the routine collection and analysis of information to track progress against set plans and check compliance to established standards.
Infrastructure: This can be described generally as large social overhead capital; such as roads, ports, hospitals, bridges, sewer facilities, airports, electricity generation and distribution, and communication networks.
Sustainable Development: Refers to the continuous and sustained qualitative improvement in the overall standard of living of people in a society or nation and the structural transformation/changes in the productive and distributive input and output systems of the economy.
Planning: This is defined as determining in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, who is to do it and even why you should it. It encompasses setting objectives as well as making day to day decisions on how these objectives can be achieved.
Management: This is the process of practice of managing people or resources.
Performance: The term performance has to do with how well a person or machine does a piece of work or an activity.
Impact: This is the effect something has no another thing.
Human Resources: Human resources refer to human beings in an organization or the workers in an organization.
Tool: By the term tools we mean the equipment or implements used to carry out an operation.
Government: The system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state. Government is a means by which organizational public policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining public policy.
Environment: The physical surroundings in which people, animals, or plants live or operate. It is the natural world, as a whole or in a particular geographical area, especially as affected by human activity.
Projects: Are a broad category of infrastructures, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings, public services and other, usually long-term, physical assets and facilities
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