Format: MS-WORD Chapters: 1-5
Pages: 80 Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH
1.1 Background to the Study
91 million Nigerians now live in extreme poverty – World Poverty Clock. Over 91 million Nigerians are now living in extreme poverty, The Cable can report. The Cable understands that at least three million Nigerians have slipped into extreme poverty between November 2018 and February 2019.
According to the World Poverty Clock, created by Vienna-based World Data Lab, 91.16 million Nigerians were living below a dollar a day as of February 13, 2019.
In June 2018, the Brookings Institution projected that Nigeria had overtaken India, as the poverty capital of the world, with 86.9 million extremely poor people.
This was further confirmed by the British Prime Minister Theresa May, who said Nigeria had become home to the largest number of very poor people in the world, putting the figures at 87 million.
“Much of Nigeria is thriving, with many individuals enjoying the fruits of a resurgent economy, yet 87 million Nigerians live below $1 and 90 cents a day, making it home to more very poor people than any other nation in the world,” the UK prime minister had said. (Vanguard; February 16, 2019)
Poverty is now widespread in Nigeria with a full range of attendant problems. The nature, the pattern, and the process of poverty as problem are little understood. The strategies adopted for solution are based on information. Poverty is not easy to define. It is a relative one, it have several perspectives. According to the Human Development Report (2009), poverty means the denial of opportunities and chances most basic to human development. Poverty manifests itself in deprivation in different forms. It is in general characterized by inadequacy of access to basic human needs (food and non-food) for the maintenance of physically and socially acceptable minimum standards of living.
In policy and in action, the policy makers in Nigeria have not folded their arms in alleviating poverty. From the 1970s, there has been official statement in Development Plans and Annual Budgets wishing for full and sustainable urban and economic development. Also there have been quite number of poverty alleviation programmes introduced and executed by the government aimed at the alleviation of poverty and at assuring the needy of a minimum living level. Yet, poverty is still grossly visible among Nigerians, showing gross failure of programmes aimed at attacking poverty related problems, which means that the programmes to attack the problems have a misplaced emphasis. The efforts of the democratic Government express deep concern about the rising incidence of poverty in Nigeria and realized that if the worsening poverty situation is not checked, the future of the nation would be doomed. (Federal office of statistics report: Vanguard February 2019)
Youth particularly in the developing countries, are the driving force for economic development. They possess the potentials which if properly harness promotes economic, cultural, social and political values of a society (Usman, 2015). To Gwary,Kwaghe,Ja'afarFuro, & Dennis(2011), youths are the young people in a society who are characterized by ample ideas, energy and new ways to seek life and face problems. The educated youths in particular, are more likely to adopt new innovations if they are involved in an activity. Isah(2015) opened that the youths are a cross-section of the country's population with abundant energy that needs proper channelling and harnessing for increase productivity. Empowerment in a nutshell is about creating/provision of condition conducive to enhance through motivation the performance of a person(s) (Jimoh, 2014). Anyadike, Emeh, & Ukah(2012) posits that entrepreneurial activities have been found to be capable of making positive impact on the economy of a nation and the quality of life of the people involved. Empirical records revealed positive relationship with stimulation of economic growth, employment generation and empowerment of the disadvantaged segment of the population which include the youths. In line with this notion, Adejo (2012) posit that government, Non-Governmental Organizations(NGOs) and international bodies seeking to improve youths livelihood through empowerment for self-sustenance, could best pursue their empowerment intents by tapping into the potentials of entrepreneurial activities. According to Usman (2015), entrepreneurial activity is an act of entrepreneurship that is concern with the capacity and attitude of a person or group of persons to involve in a venture with the probability of success or failure. Nigeria, with a population of over 180million, experiences a rising rate of unemployment and attendant poverty particularly among the youths (Hassan, 2014). According to Suleiman (2014), the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in 2011 stated that the universities and other tertiary institutions in the country produce an average of 225,000 graduates each year while another 700,000 school leavers or college graduates are turned out each year, without the hope of any job.
Based on these efforts by the governments in empowering the youths, it has become imperative to assessed the performance of the programmes in supporting youths to participate in entrepreneurial activities in the country and Kaduna State in particular. It is against this background that this study was undertaken to assessed the impact of the various government -empowerment programmes on youths participation in entrepreneurial activities in Kaduna state, specifically in Kaduna Metropolitan areas, with the view to ascertained the extent to which the government programmes on youths empowerment in Adamawa State, supported the youths segment of the population to participate in entrepreneurial activities.
Local Government is seen as political subdivision of a nation, which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs. It is regarded as the third tier of government in Nigeria, created for the purpose of grass-root development (UNO, 1961). In Nigeria the system of local government has over the years undergone series of changes, beginning from when the British colonial administration introduced the native authority system. In 1921 the basic structure of this native authority system features prominently throughout the country and continued until 1950s, the period Nigerians began to participate actively in legislative functions. (Hassan, 2010).
The primary function of every local government is to improve the welfare of the entire grass-root people. In this regard, the effort of the local government is directed towards the improvement of the living standard of the people thereby achieving socio-economic development. These include the improvement of education, healthcare, shelter, provision of food, employment opportunity, access to basic infrastructure and provision of good roads, electricity and water and so on.
Following this brief historical development of local government in Nigeria, the question is what has local government council done in alleviating poverty in their various area councils. Poverty affects every aspects of human life, such as physical, moral, psychological part of life. Majority of Nigerians are now living below poverty line (i.e. one dollar per day) and this is extremely unbecoming. Hence there is need for adequate attention to the basic needs of life such as food, cloth, shelter, healthcare, employment, and affordable education to be addressed properly. (Hassan, 2010).
Thus the federal government initiative to execute the poverty alleviation programmes is timely and highly commendable. The schemes are multidimensional and are intended to tackle the multidimensional nature of poverty. The schemes include The Youth Empowerment Schemes (YES), The Rural Infrastructure Development Schemes (RIDS), The Natural Resources Development and Conservation Scheme (NRDCS), and The Social Welfare Service Scheme (SOWESS). This initiative by the government is intended to spread down through the State and Local Government Areas to the grass root. In this regard Chikun Local Government area council should be poised to embrace and implement full heartedly these programmes as it dives towards development and to enhance and improve the living standard of the people. This calls for the assessment of the impact of the poverty alleviation programmes in this Local Government Area.
In these regards, the Federal Government of Nigeria had designed several programmes aimed at alleviating poverty and improving the living conditions of its people.
Some of these programmes since the 1970s include:
•Operation Feed the Nation (OFN).
•DFFRI, Peoples Bank, Community Bank.
•Structural Adjustment Programme.
•Better Life Programme and Family Support Programme.
•Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).
•National Directorate of Employment (NDE).
•Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI).
•Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP).
•National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP).
•National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).
All these are geared towards raising the living standards of rural people and the urban dwellers, with the anticipated peace, harmony and development resulting thereafter. Nigeria is a country of about 180 million people, covering 4470km coastlines with enormous resources of natural gas and coal, vast array of solid minerals like gold, coal, tin, kaolin, columbite, zinc, limestone; etc.
1.2 Definition of Terms
Some terminologies were used during the course of this research and for proper understanding such terms have been explained thus:
i. Poverty: Is a state where an individual is not able to cater adequately for his or her basic needs of food, clothing and shelter; is unable to meet social and economic obligations, lacks gainful employment, skills, assets and self-esteem; and has limited access to social and economic infrastructure such as education, health, portable water, and sanitation; and consequently, has limited chance of advancing his or her welfare to the limit of his or her capabilities.
ii. Absolute Poverty: Refers to insufficient or total lack of necessities and facilities like food, housing, medical care, education, social and environmental services, consumer goods, recreational opportunities, neighborhood amenities and transport facilities, etc.
iii. Relative Poverty: Refers to a situation when people’s income, even if adequate for survival, fall radically below that of community average. What is considered poverty level in one country or person may well be the height of well-being in another.
iv. Poverty line: According to the CBN (1999), poverty line represents “the value of basic (food and non-food) needs considered essential for meeting the minimum socially acceptable standard of living within a given society.
v. Poverty Alleviation: Means all formal activities geared towards lowering the rate and prevalence of poverty in the country.
vi. PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategies Paper is a position paper introduced by the World Bank that is a development plan borne out of collaborative efforts of a broad range of stakeholders’ poverty reduction. It is normally designed and implemented through the participation of all involved in one way or the other in poverty, poverty reduction and its other related issues.
vii. NAPEP: This refers to the National Poverty Eradication Programme. It is a poverty alleviation measure set up by the Obasanjo regime to cushion the hardship in the country.
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
Nobody can convincingly define poverty until he passes through it, for it is better felt than seen. However economic indices focus on poverty as lack of basic necessities of life such as food, shelter and cloths and also the general sign of economic stagnation namely; unemployment, low consumption, low purchasing power, low productivity, poor health care, poor education system etc. (Magaji 2010 Pp 33-35).
The National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) was established 2001 with ultimate target of eradication of absolute poverty in the country with a view to streamlining and rationalizing existing poverty alleviation institutions for improved co-ordination, implementation and monitoring of relevant schemes (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999). Unfortunately poverty level seems to be unresponsive to the fight, in spite of huge resources received by NAPEP through budget allocations and Millennium Development Goal (MDG) fund. This is evident, in the increasing level of unemployment, people living in squalor, overcrowded and poorly ventilated homes, deteriorating environment, unreliable supply of water and electricity, poor roads, high infant and maternal mortality rates, acute malnutrition and short life expectancy, drug addiction, poor sanitation and low education opportunities and increasing insecurity are other indications within some urban sectors of Kaduna State. As a matter of fact, the need arises to take a careful look at the issues of poverty, coming against the background of continuing effort on the part of the Government to address it, in order to have significant improvement in the living standard of the generality of the people and level of poverty to ordinarily be reduced.
Over the years, several researches have been carried out on poverty alleviation programmes. Alanana (2006) carried out a research on appraisal of Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Benue, Nasarawa and Plateau States and adopted the Foster, Geer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index as well as the Z test in tracing the poverty incidence among beneficiaries and discovered that there was no involvement of the poor themselves in the conception, planning and implementation of programmes meant for them. The adoption of the Foster, Geer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index which is restricted to the income perspective of poverty is also a shortcoming. Poverty is multi-dimensional in nature, and goes beyond just lack of private income. In a related study, Shawulu (2008) employed the student’s t-test to examine the difference in per capita real income of beneficiaries of Capacity Acquisition Programme (CAP) and Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP) before and after the programme in Kaduna Metropolitan, Kaduna State. The study concluded that the programme needs to be re-designed in order to address some critical poverty sectors. The study focused mainly on few sub programmes of NAPEP that is the Capacity Acquisition Programme (CAP) and Mandatory Attachment Programme (MAP) which fall short of research needs for examining the impact it has on eradication of urban poverty and urban management.
It is against this background that it is necessary to evaluate NAPEP from the urban management perspective; this is for the reason that effective urban management is also multidimensional. It entails active role in mobilizing, managing and coordinating of resources to support the objectives of urban development and ensure the vitality of cities that is, planning of the overall structure of the city to anticipate development trends and guide them into sustainable physical, social and economic patterns. Therefore, there is the need to lay emphasis on other indicators of poverty like insecurity, poor housing, inadequate health and educational facilities and so forth. Additionally, the need to turn to the basic human needs strategy in alleviating poverty by providing public services. In view of the above, it can be deduced that if provision and improvement of basic human needs is limited and the trend continues, the country is not likely to meet the Millennium Development Goal on the eradication of poverty by 2015. Therefore, this research would be centered on evaluation of NAPEP in Kaduna Metropolitan, with respect to the urban management implications.
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The research investigated new orientation in the partnership between policy makers and the masses, whom poverty alleviation programmes are targeted, with a view to making the conception of such policies to be masses or consumer based, in order to ensure that policy package designed by the masses and included in the government’s package are aimed at solving their poverty induced problems.
The main objective of this study is to assess the contribution of NAPEP on Poverty Alleviation in Kaduna State (Case study of Kaduna Metropolitan Areas).
The aim of the study is to evaluate the activities of NAPEP with a view of identifying its success and shortcomings in order to make appropriate recommendations.
i. To examine the activities of NAPEP in Kaduna metropolis.
ii. To evaluate the impact and performance of NAPEP in Kaduna metropolis.
iii. To establish the significance of NAPEP on urban management.
iv. To identify reasons for non-performance of the programmes.
1.5 Research Question
The study therefore, set to answer the following questions:
i. To what extent has NAPEP achieved poverty reduction in relation to its stated targets in Kaduna State?
ii. What are the urban management implications of urban poverty reduction in Kaduna State?
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
Based on the objective stated above the study will test the following hypotheses
H0: The various governmental empowerment programmes did not have significant impact on Youths participation in entrepreneurial activities in Kaduna State.
H1: The various governmental empowerment programmes have significant impact on Youths participation in entrepreneurial activities in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Nigeria is a country that is richly blessed with abundant Human resources and arable lands, favorable climate in terms of both rainfall distribution, suitable temperature, and a large population which is the basis for any agricultural production and consumption (Anyanwu, 1997). This study is important as it will come up with findings that will bring about a better understanding of the relationship between National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and youth empowerment in Kaduna State. Specifically it will be beneficial to the following cadre of people:
To Policy Makers
Policy makers would benefit from this research as the study would investigate issues that have affected the implementation of policies that were designed to help in poverty reduction in Kaduna State over the years and come up with pragmatic approaches that could be applied for solving that problem. It would also help them to look into already implemented policies and see areas where there is need to amend the existing policies or to update them.
The research would also benefit other researchers as the outcome of the study would form reference point not only to the future researchers in this area but also add to the already existing literatures on area.
The general public would also benefit from the study as they would have access to information on National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and Youth empowerment in Kaduna State this will add to their wealth of knowledge.
To International institutions
The study is also significant as it would provide international institutions like the World Bank, United Nations, and African Union relevant findings that could make them to intensify the efforts that they are making as to ensuring the improvement of the youth empowerment especially in developing countries of the world through providing the needed aid in terms of finance and the equipments which include tractors, harvesters and the use of modern technology in the agricultural sector. It may also enhance bilateral and multilateral relationship between Nigeria and other countries who may decide to invest in Nigerian entrepreneurs.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study covers the rural areas known for their poverty proneness, government agencies concerned with poverty alleviation and rural development; such government agencies include Community Banks, Rural Development Banks, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), etc.
The study is focused mainly on the evaluation of NAPEP covering the existing four Local Government Areas within Kaduna Metropolis; that is, Kaduna South, Kaduna North, Igabi and Chikun. The evaluation is centered specifically on targets of NAPEP, implemented programmes designed by NAPEP to combat poverty that are of concern to the urban areas, (that is Capacity Acquisition Programme, Mandatory Attachment Programme, Multi Partner Micro Finance Programme, Conditional Cash Transfer Programme, Community Skills Development Programme, General Micro Credit Programme and Farmers Empowerment programme), and the delivery mechanisms put in place. Perhaps the most debilitating limitation of this study is the inadequacy of data detailed and comprehensive data records on beneficiaries and addresses of the beneficiaries at the time of data collection. Therefore, the only available list of the registered unions of beneficiaries was used to sample out 200 identified beneficiaries from the different poverty reduction programmes of NAPEP within the study area.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters
Chapter one: covers the introduction, Chapter two: will contain the literature review; conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical review of related literatures of similar studies, Chapter three: will comprise research methodology, Chapter four: will contain data presentation, analysis and the results, Chapter five: will comprise summary, recommendation, conclusion, bibliography and appendix.
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