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The Impact of Empowerment Program on Poverty Reduction in Kaduna State

 Format: MS-WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 80   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Feb 19, 2020 |  11:01 pm |  1434

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

91 million Nigerians now live in extreme poverty – World Poverty Clock. Over 91 million Nigerians are now living in extreme poverty, The Cable can report. The Cable understands that at least three million Nigerians have slipped into extreme poverty between November 2018 and February 2019.

According to the World Poverty Clock, created by Vienna-based World Data Lab, 91.16 million Nigerians were living below a dollar a day as of February 13, 2019.

In June 2018, the Brookings Institution projected that Nigeria had overtaken India, as the poverty capital of the world, with 86.9 million extremely poor people.

This was further confirmed by the British Prime Minister Theresa May, who said Nigeria had become home to the largest number of very poor people in the world, putting the figures at 87 million.

“Much of Nigeria is thriving, with many individuals enjoying the fruits of a resurgent economy, yet 87 million Nigerians live below $1 and 90 cents a day, making it home to more very poor people than any other nation in the world,” the UK prime minister had said. (Vanguard; February 16, 2019)

Poverty  is  now  widespread  in  Nigeria  with  a  full  range  of  attendant  problems. The  nature,  the  pattern,  and  the  process  of  poverty  as  problem  are  little  understood.  The strategies adopted for solution  are  based  on  information.  Poverty  is  not  easy  to  define.  It  is  a relative  one,  it  have  several  perspectives.  According  to  the  Human  Development  Report (2009),  poverty  means  the  denial  of  opportunities  and  chances  most  basic  to  human development.  Poverty  manifests  itself  in  deprivation  in  different  forms.  It  is  in  general characterized  by  inadequacy  of  access  to  basic  human  needs  (food  and  non-food)  for  the maintenance  of  physically  and  socially  acceptable  minimum  standards  of  living.

In  policy  and  in  action,  the  policy  makers  in  Nigeria  have  not  folded  their  arms  in  alleviating poverty.  From  the  1970s,  there  has  been  official  statement  in  Development  Plans  and  Annual Budgets  wishing  for  full  and  sustainable  urban  and  economic  development.  Also  there  have been  quite  number  of  poverty  alleviation  programmes  introduced  and  executed  by  the government  aimed  at  the  alleviation  of  poverty  and  at  assuring  the  needy  of  a  minimum  living level.  Yet,  poverty  is  still  grossly  visible  among  Nigerians,  showing  gross  failure  of programmes  aimed  at  attacking  poverty  related  problems,  which  means  that  the  programmes  to attack  the  problems  have  a  misplaced  emphasis.  The  efforts  of  the  democratic  Government express  deep  concern  about  the  rising  incidence  of  poverty  in  Nigeria  and  realized  that  if  the worsening  poverty  situation  is  not  checked,  the  future  of  the  nation  would  be  doomed. (Federal office of statistics report: Vanguard February 2019)

Youth  particularly  in  the  developing  countries,  are  the  driving  force  for  economic development.  They  possess  the  potentials  which  if  properly  harness  promotes  economic, cultural,  social  and  political  values  of  a  society  (Usman,  2015).  To  Gwary,Kwaghe,Ja'afarFuro,  &  Dennis(2011),  youths  are  the  young  people  in  a  society  who  are  characterized  by ample  ideas,  energy  and  new  ways  to  seek  life  and  face  problems.  The  educated  youths  in particular,  are  more  likely  to  adopt  new  innovations  if  they  are  involved  in  an  activity. Isah(2015)  opened  that  the  youths  are  a  cross-section  of  the  country's  population  with abundant  energy  that  needs  proper  channelling  and  harnessing  for  increase  productivity. Empowerment  in  a  nutshell  is  about  creating/provision  of  condition  conducive  to enhance  through  motivation  the  performance  of  a  person(s)  (Jimoh,  2014).  Anyadike,  Emeh,  &  Ukah(2012)  posits  that  entrepreneurial  activities  have  been found  to  be  capable  of  making  positive  impact  on  the  economy  of  a  nation  and  the  quality of  life  of  the  people  involved.  Empirical  records  revealed  positive  relationship  with stimulation  of  economic  growth,  employment  generation  and  empowerment  of  the disadvantaged  segment  of  the  population  which  include  the  youths.  In  line  with  this notion,  Adejo  (2012)  posit  that  government,  Non-Governmental  Organizations(NGOs) and  international  bodies  seeking  to  improve  youths  livelihood  through  empowerment for self-sustenance,  could  best  pursue  their  empowerment  intents  by  tapping  into  the potentials  of  entrepreneurial  activities.  According  to  Usman  (2015),  entrepreneurial activity  is  an  act  of  entrepreneurship  that  is  concern  with  the  capacity  and  attitude  of  a person or group of persons to involve in a venture with the probability of success or failure. Nigeria,  with  a  population  of  over  180million,  experiences  a  rising  rate  of  unemployment and  attendant  poverty  particularly  among  the  youths  (Hassan,  2014).  According  to Suleiman  (2014),  the  National  Poverty  Eradication  Programme  (NAPEP)  in  2011  stated that  the  universities  and  other  tertiary  institutions  in  the  country  produce  an  average  of 225,000  graduates  each  year  while  another  700,000  school  leavers  or  college  graduates  are turned out each year, without the hope of any job.

Based  on  these  efforts  by  the  governments  in  empowering  the  youths,  it  has  become imperative  to  assessed  the  performance  of  the  programmes  in  supporting  youths  to participate  in  entrepreneurial activities in  the  country and Kaduna State in particular. It is  against  this  background  that  this  study  was  undertaken  to  assessed  the  impact  of  the various  government  -empowerment  programmes  on  youths  participation  in entrepreneurial  activities  in  Kaduna  state,  specifically  in  Kaduna Metropolitan  areas,  with  the  view  to  ascertained  the  extent  to  which  the  government  programmes  on  youths  empowerment    in  Adamawa  State,  supported  the  youths segment of the population to participate in entrepreneurial activities.

Local  Government  is  seen  as  political  subdivision  of  a  nation,  which  is  constituted  by  law and  has  substantial  control  of  local  affairs.  It  is  regarded  as  the  third  tier  of  government  in Nigeria,  created  for  the  purpose  of  grass-root  development  (UNO,  1961).  In  Nigeria  the system  of  local  government  has  over  the  years  undergone  series  of  changes,  beginning from  when  the  British  colonial  administration  introduced  the  native  authority  system.  In 1921  the  basic  structure  of  this  native  authority  system  features  prominently  throughout the  country  and  continued  until  1950s,  the  period  Nigerians  began  to  participate  actively in  legislative  functions.  (Hassan,  2010).

The  primary  function  of  every  local  government  is  to  improve  the  welfare  of  the  entire grass-root  people.  In  this  regard,  the  effort  of  the  local  government  is  directed  towards  the improvement  of  the  living  standard  of  the  people  thereby  achieving  socio-economic development.  These  include  the  improvement  of  education,  healthcare,  shelter,  provision of  food,  employment  opportunity,  access  to  basic  infrastructure  and  provision  of  good roads,  electricity  and  water  and  so  on.

Following  this  brief  historical  development  of  local  government  in  Nigeria,  the  question is  what  has  local  government  council  done  in  alleviating  poverty  in  their  various  area councils.  Poverty  affects  every  aspects  of  human  life,  such  as  physical,  moral, psychological  part  of  life.  Majority  of  Nigerians  are  now  living  below  poverty  line  (i.e. one  dollar  per  day)  and  this  is  extremely  unbecoming.  Hence  there  is  need  for  adequate attention  to  the  basic  needs  of  life  such  as  food,  cloth,  shelter,  healthcare,  employment, and affordable education to be addressed properly. (Hassan, 2010).

Thus  the  federal  government  initiative  to  execute  the  poverty  alleviation  programmes  is timely  and  highly  commendable.  The  schemes  are  multidimensional  and  are  intended  to tackle  the  multidimensional  nature  of  poverty.  The  schemes  include  The  Youth Empowerment  Schemes  (YES),  The  Rural  Infrastructure  Development  Schemes  (RIDS), The  Natural  Resources  Development  and  Conservation  Scheme  (NRDCS),  and  The Social  Welfare  Service  Scheme  (SOWESS).  This  initiative  by  the  government  is  intended to  spread  down  through  the  State  and  Local  Government  Areas  to  the  grass  root.  In  this regard  Chikun  Local  Government  area  council  should  be  poised  to  embrace  and implement  full  heartedly  these  programmes  as  it  dives  towards  development  and  to enhance  and  improve  the  living  standard  of  the  people.  This calls  for  the  assessment  of the impact of the poverty alleviation programmes in this Local Government Area.

In  these  regards,  the  Federal  Government  of  Nigeria  had  designed several  programmes  aimed  at  alleviating  poverty  and  improving  the  living conditions  of  its  people.  

 Some  of  these  programmes  since  the  1970s  include:

•Operation  Feed  the  Nation  (OFN).

•Green  Revolution.

•DFFRI,  Peoples  Bank,  Community  Bank.

•Structural  Adjustment  Programme.

•Better  Life  Programme  and  Family  Support  Programme.

•Structural  Adjustment  Programme  (SAP).

•National  Directorate  of  Employment  (NDE).

•Directorate  of  Food,  Roads  and  Rural  Infrastructure (DFRRI).

•Poverty  Alleviation  Programme  (PAP). 

•National  Poverty  Eradication  Programme  (NAPEP). 

•National  Economic  Empowerment  and  Development Strategy  (NEEDS).

All  these  are  geared  towards  raising  the  living  standards  of  rural  people and  the  urban  dwellers,  with  the  anticipated  peace,  harmony  and  development resulting  thereafter.    Nigeria  is  a  country  of  about  180  million  people, covering  4470km  coastlines  with  enormous  resources  of  natural  gas  and  coal, vast  array  of  solid  minerals  like  gold,  coal,  tin,  kaolin,  columbite,  zinc, limestone;  etc.

1.2    Definition of Terms

Some  terminologies  were  used  during  the  course  of  this  research  and  for  proper understanding  such  terms  have  been  explained  thus:

i. Poverty:  Is  a  state  where  an  individual  is  not  able  to  cater  adequately  for  his  or  her basic  needs  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter;  is  unable  to  meet  social  and  economic obligations,  lacks  gainful  employment,  skills,  assets  and  self-esteem;  and  has  limited access to social and economic infrastructure such as education, health, portable water,  and  sanitation;  and  consequently,  has  limited  chance  of  advancing  his  or  her  welfare  to the  limit  of  his  or  her  capabilities.

ii. Absolute  Poverty:  Refers  to  insufficient  or  total  lack  of  necessities  and  facilities  like food,  housing,  medical  care,  education,  social  and  environmental  services,  consumer goods,  recreational  opportunities,  neighborhood  amenities  and  transport  facilities,  etc.

iii. Relative  Poverty:  Refers  to  a  situation  when  people’s  income,  even  if  adequate  for survival,  fall  radically  below  that  of  community  average.  What  is  considered  poverty level  in  one  country  or  person  may  well  be  the  height  of  well-being  in  another.

iv. Poverty  line:  According  to  the  CBN  (1999),  poverty  line  represents  “the  value  of  basic (food  and  non-food)  needs  considered  essential  for  meeting  the  minimum  socially acceptable  standard  of  living  within  a  given  society.

v. Poverty  Alleviation:  Means  all  formal  activities  geared  towards  lowering  the  rate  and prevalence  of  poverty  in  the  country.

vi. PRSP:  Poverty  Reduction  Strategies  Paper  is  a  position  paper  introduced  by  the  World Bank  that  is  a  development  plan  borne  out  of  collaborative  efforts  of  a  broad  range  of stakeholders’  poverty  reduction.  It  is  normally  designed  and  implemented  through  the participation  of  all  involved  in  one  way  or  the  other  in  poverty,  poverty  reduction  and its  other  related  issues.

vii. NAPEP:  This refers to the  National  Poverty  Eradication  Programme.  It  is  a  poverty alleviation  measure  set  up  by  the  Obasanjo  regime  to  cushion  the  hardship  in  the country.

1.3    Statement of the Research Problem

Nobody  can  convincingly  define  poverty  until  he  passes  through  it,  for  it  is  better  felt than  seen.  However  economic  indices  focus  on  poverty  as  lack  of  basic  necessities  of  life such  as  food,  shelter  and  cloths  and  also  the  general  sign  of  economic  stagnation  namely; unemployment,  low  consumption,  low  purchasing  power,  low  productivity,  poor  health care,  poor  education  system  etc.    (Magaji  2010  Pp  33-35).

The  National  Poverty  Eradication  Programme  (NAPEP)  was  established  2001  with  ultimate target  of  eradication  of  absolute  poverty  in  the  country  with  a  view  to  streamlining  and rationalizing  existing  poverty  alleviation  institutions  for  improved  co-ordination, implementation  and  monitoring  of  relevant  schemes  (Federal  Republic  of  Nigeria,  1999). Unfortunately  poverty  level  seems  to  be  unresponsive  to  the  fight,  in  spite  of  huge  resources received  by  NAPEP  through  budget  allocations  and  Millennium  Development  Goal  (MDG) fund.  This  is  evident,  in  the  increasing  level  of  unemployment,  people  living  in  squalor, overcrowded  and  poorly  ventilated  homes,  deteriorating  environment,  unreliable  supply  of water  and  electricity,  poor  roads,  high  infant  and  maternal  mortality  rates,  acute  malnutrition and  short  life  expectancy,  drug  addiction,  poor  sanitation  and  low  education  opportunities  and increasing  insecurity  are  other  indications  within  some  urban  sectors  of  Kaduna  State.  As  a matter  of  fact,  the  need  arises  to  take  a  careful  look  at  the  issues  of  poverty,  coming  against  the background  of  continuing  effort  on  the  part  of  the  Government  to  address  it,  in  order  to  have significant  improvement  in  the  living  standard  of  the  generality  of  the  people  and  level  of poverty  to  ordinarily  be  reduced.    

Over  the  years,  several  researches  have  been  carried  out  on  poverty  alleviation  programmes. Alanana  (2006)  carried  out  a  research  on  appraisal  of  Poverty  Alleviation  Programmes  in Benue,  Nasarawa  and  Plateau  States  and  adopted  the  Foster,  Geer  and  Thorbecke  (FGT) poverty  index  as  well  as  the  Z  test  in  tracing  the  poverty  incidence  among  beneficiaries  and discovered  that  there  was  no  involvement  of  the  poor  themselves  in  the  conception,  planning and  implementation  of  programmes  meant  for  them.  The  adoption  of  the  Foster,  Geer  and Thorbecke  (FGT)  poverty  index  which  is  restricted  to  the  income  perspective  of  poverty  is  also a  shortcoming.  Poverty  is  multi-dimensional  in  nature,  and  goes  beyond  just  lack  of  private income.  In  a  related  study,  Shawulu  (2008)  employed  the  student’s  t-test  to  examine  the difference  in  per  capita  real  income  of  beneficiaries  of  Capacity  Acquisition  Programme (CAP)  and  Mandatory  Attachment  Programme  (MAP)  before  and  after  the  programme  in Kaduna Metropolitan,   Kaduna  State.  The  study  concluded  that  the  programme  needs  to  be  re-designed  in order  to  address  some  critical  poverty  sectors.  The  study  focused  mainly  on  few  sub programmes  of  NAPEP  that  is  the  Capacity  Acquisition  Programme  (CAP)  and  Mandatory Attachment  Programme  (MAP)  which  fall  short  of  research  needs  for  examining  the  impact  it has  on  eradication  of  urban  poverty  and  urban  management.  

It  is  against  this  background  that  it  is  necessary  to  evaluate  NAPEP  from  the  urban management  perspective;  this  is  for  the  reason  that  effective  urban  management  is  also  multidimensional.  It  entails  active  role  in  mobilizing,  managing  and  coordinating  of  resources  to support  the  objectives  of  urban  development  and  ensure  the  vitality  of  cities  that  is,  planning  of the  overall  structure  of  the  city  to  anticipate  development  trends  and  guide  them  into sustainable  physical,  social  and  economic  patterns.  Therefore,  there  is  the  need  to  lay  emphasis on  other  indicators  of  poverty  like  insecurity,  poor  housing,  inadequate  health  and  educational facilities  and  so  forth.    Additionally,  the  need  to  turn  to  the  basic  human  needs  strategy  in alleviating  poverty  by  providing  public  services.  In  view  of  the  above,  it  can  be  deduced  that  if provision  and  improvement  of  basic  human  needs  is  limited  and  the  trend  continues,  the country  is  not  likely  to  meet  the  Millennium  Development  Goal  on  the  eradication  of  poverty by  2015.  Therefore,  this  research  would  be  centered  on  evaluation  of  NAPEP  in  Kaduna Metropolitan,  with  respect  to  the  urban  management  implications.

1.4    Aims and Objectives of the Study

The  research  investigated  new  orientation  in  the  partnership  between policy  makers  and  the  masses,  whom  poverty  alleviation  programmes  are targeted,  with  a  view  to  making  the  conception  of  such  policies  to  be  masses or  consumer  based,  in  order  to  ensure  that  policy  package  designed  by  the masses  and  included  in  the  government’s  package  are  aimed  at  solving  their poverty  induced  problems.

The main objective of this study is to assess the contribution of NAPEP on Poverty Alleviation in Kaduna State (Case study of Kaduna Metropolitan Areas).

1.4.1 Aim

The  aim  of  the  study  is  to  evaluate  the  activities  of  NAPEP  with  a  view  of  identifying  its success  and  shortcomings  in  order  to  make  appropriate  recommendations.  

1.4.2 Objectives

i. To examine  the  activities  of  NAPEP  in  Kaduna  metropolis.

ii. To evaluate  the  impact  and  performance  of  NAPEP  in  Kaduna  metropolis.

iii. To establish  the  significance  of  NAPEP  on  urban  management.  

iv. To identify  reasons  for  non-performance  of  the  programmes.

 

 

1.5    Research Question

The  study  therefore,  set  to answer  the  following  questions:

i. To  what  extent  has  NAPEP  achieved  poverty  reduction  in  relation  to  its  stated  targets in  Kaduna  State?

ii. What are  the  urban  management  implications  of  urban  poverty  reduction  in  Kaduna State? 

1.6    Statement of Hypothesis

Based on the objective stated above the study will test the following hypotheses

H0: The  various  governmental  empowerment  programmes  did  not  have  significant  impact on Youths participation in entrepreneurial activities in Kaduna State.

H1:  The  various  governmental  empowerment  programmes  have  significant  impact on Youths participation in entrepreneurial activities in Kaduna State.

1.7    Significance of the Study

Nigeria is a country that is richly blessed with abundant Human resources and arable lands, favorable climate in terms of both rainfall distribution, suitable temperature, and a large population which is the basis for any agricultural production and consumption (Anyanwu, 1997).  This study is important as it will come up with findings that will bring about a better understanding of the relationship between National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and youth empowerment in Kaduna State.  Specifically it will be beneficial to the following cadre of people:

To Policy Makers

Policy makers would benefit from this research as the study would investigate issues that have affected the implementation of policies that were designed to help in poverty reduction in Kaduna State over the years and come up with pragmatic approaches that could be applied for solving that problem. It would also help them to look into already implemented policies and see areas where there is need to amend the existing policies or to update them.

To Researchers

The research would also benefit other researchers as the outcome of the study would form reference point not only to the future researchers in this area but also add to the already existing literatures on area.

The general public would also benefit from the study as they would have access to information on National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) and Youth empowerment  in Kaduna State this will add to their wealth of knowledge.

To International institutions

The study is also significant as it would provide international institutions like the World Bank, United Nations, and African Union relevant findings that could make them to intensify the efforts that they are making as to ensuring the improvement of the youth empowerment especially in developing countries of the world through providing the needed aid in terms of finance and the equipments which include tractors, harvesters and the use of modern technology in the agricultural sector. It may also enhance bilateral and multilateral relationship between Nigeria and other countries who may decide to invest in Nigerian entrepreneurs.

1.8    Scope of the Study

The  study  covers  the  rural  areas  known  for  their  poverty  proneness, government  agencies  concerned  with  poverty  alleviation  and  rural development;  such  government  agencies  include  Community  Banks,  Rural Development Banks, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), etc.

The  study  is  focused  mainly  on  the  evaluation  of  NAPEP  covering  the  existing  four  Local Government  Areas  within  Kaduna  Metropolis;  that  is,  Kaduna  South,  Kaduna  North,  Igabi  and Chikun.  The  evaluation  is  centered  specifically  on  targets  of  NAPEP,  implemented programmes  designed  by  NAPEP  to  combat  poverty  that  are  of  concern  to  the  urban  areas, (that  is  Capacity  Acquisition  Programme,  Mandatory  Attachment  Programme,  Multi  Partner Micro  Finance  Programme,  Conditional  Cash  Transfer  Programme,  Community  Skills Development  Programme,  General  Micro  Credit  Programme  and  Farmers  Empowerment programme),  and  the  delivery  mechanisms  put  in  place. Perhaps  the  most  debilitating  limitation  of  this  study  is  the  inadequacy  of  data  detailed  and comprehensive  data  records  on  beneficiaries  and  addresses  of  the  beneficiaries  at  the  time  of data  collection.  Therefore,  the  only  available  list  of  the  registered  unions  of  beneficiaries  was used  to  sample  out  200  identified  beneficiaries  from  the  different  poverty  reduction programmes of NAPEP within the study area. 

1.9    Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters

Chapter one: covers the introduction, Chapter two: will contain the literature review; conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical review of related literatures of similar studies, Chapter three: will comprise research methodology, Chapter four: will contain data presentation, analysis and the results, Chapter five: will comprise summary, recommendation, conclusion, bibliography and appendix.

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