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 Format: MS WORD   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 85   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Feb 28, 2020 |  04:04 pm |  1520


The assessment of building collapse in the recent past has become a source of national concern and embarrassment in Nigeria. News reports of such incidents are frequently reported in the country by both the print and electronic media. In 2006 alone, no fewer than 13 of such cases were recorded in Lagos State alone while statistics of the previous and subsequent years were not better off either. In 2014 a worst case scenario was recorded in the synagogue church guest house collapse with record of 116 deaths. This study was set out to empirically ascertain the causes of such building failure and collapse from the perspectives of the stakeholders (comprising of the professionals in the building industry, contractors and house owners/developers) with a view to proffering appropriate recommendations to guide against future occurrence. Lagos State was chosen as the case study based on the frequency of occurrence building collapse in the state. To achieve the objective of the study, 100 questionnaires were randomly administered on the professional Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Engineers (Structural and Civil), building contractors and Landlords/developers in the study area to seek their opinion on their perceived causes of building collapse. The study identified the use of sub-standard building materials, poor workmanship by contractors, use of incompetent contractors, faulty construction methodology, heavy downpour, non-compliance with specifications/ standards by developers/ contractors, inadequate/ lack of supervision/ inspection/ monitoring, structural defects, defective design/ structure, illegal conversion/ alterations/ additions to existing structures and dilapidating structures as the major causes of building collapse in Lagos State, Nigeria. From the professional perspective inadequate/lack of supervision/inspection/monitoring was ranked 1st, while substandard building materials was ranked 1st according to landlord and contractor’s perspective respectively. The study recommends education of all the stakeholders including the professionals in the building industry and landlords/developers on the inherent dangers of building collapse and the need to be safety conscious while building houses.




Buildings are structures, which serve as shelters for man, his properties and activities. They must be properly planned, designed and erected to obtain desired satisfaction from the environment. A house has been said severally to be important to man and is the third in his hierarchy of needs, that is, after food and clothing (Windapo, 2006) as it plays a major role in the development of any nation. Today, the incidences of Structural Failure have become major issues of concern in development of the nation as the frequencies of their occurrence and the magnitude of the losses both in terms of lives and properties are becoming alarming.

          The need for redress for losses sustained through building collapse in Nigeria, precisely Lagos as study area. According to Windapo (2006) “frequent types of buildings that collapse are residential buildings which are either on two, three or four floors. Structural Failure has become recurring decimal, a worrisome menace nightmare and an enduring embarrassment. The horrifying scene of structural failure is no longer news – breaker this time around. Really, incidents of collapsed buildings, collapsed bridges or collapsed structures of various types are not peculiar to Nigeria alone. But the current situation is becoming more rampant and embarrassing, most especially as it relates to Lagos State.

          Structural failure is the inability of a building to carry out its structural duties. This may be in form of loosening, twisting, buckling, cracking, distortion or shearing of structural members or elements of a building. For instance, last year (July 21, 2013) at Surulere, Lagos State, a two-story building that was still undergoing construction collapsed around 10amduring an early morning rain and killed five people. The factors to be observed in building construction include durability, adequate stability to prevent its failure or discomfort to the users, resistance to weather, fire outbreak, rain, and other forms of accidents. The styles of building construction are constantly changing with introduction of new materials and techniques of construction.

Consequently, the work involved in the design and construction stages of buildings are largely that of selecting materials, components and structures that will meet the expected building.


          Many factors were identified as responsible for building collapse such as use of sub-standard building materials, use of quack professionals and contractors, poor workmanship, faulty construction methodology, non-compliance with specifications or standards, illegal conversion, alterations or additions to existing structures, defective design.


          The aim of this research is to examine the role of professionals and factors responsible for effects of building collapse in Lagos State, and as well aim to recommending remedies to cases of collapse structures.

         The Objectives of the study are to:

     i.        Identify common types of building collapse in Lagos State Nigeria;

   ii.        Investigate into major causes, factors responsible for and the possible effect of building collapse in Lagos State;

  iii.        The role of Government and professionals in buildings collapse.

  iv.        Recommend ways of reducing building collapse in Lagos State.



The research questions are:

1        Is poor construction method a major cause of building collapse?

2.       Are poor Government policies responsible for building collapse?

3.       What are the roles of building professional in building collapses?


The aim of the study was to examine the causes of building collapse in Lagos metropolis with a view to proffering solution to identified causes and in attempt to achieve the objective, data was sourced from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected with the aid of 100 questionnaires administered to the professionals in the built environment (Architects, Buildings, Quantity Surveyors and Engineers (Civil and Structural Engineers), building contractors and some Landlords/developers. Secondary sources included historical data of buildings that had collapsed in the past in Lagos State sourced from various publications in the newspapers, magazines as well those obtained from Lagos State Physical Planning and Development Authority and Nigeria’s National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). The data so collated were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistical tools.


This study covers Lagos metropolis, lies on latitude 6.270N and longitude 3.280E. Its metropolitan district occupies the Lagos Island and part of the mainland. It is a small state with a population of over 9 million (National Population Commission, 2007) on a land area of 3,577sqkm making it the sixth populous in the world and the second largest city in Nigeria and one of the most populous cities in Africa. Being the industrial as well as commercial centre of the country the city has a high population density and abundant economic opportunities, which in turn has lead to over utilization of available utilities and resources.

The increasing rate of urbanization has resulted in pressure on land use and it has also resulted to the development of many high rise buildings examples of which include NET building, 1004 buildings at Ikoyi in Lagos, and so on.


          Factors affecting building collapse in Lagos have been a major concern in Nigeria as it threats human lives and properties in the state because of the high rate of building collapse at close intervals (e.g. the collapse of two-story building under construction at Adeyemi Street, People’s Bus Stop. OjoAlaba Lagos on the 11th April, 2014 around 2:00am & collapse of six-story building at the Synagogue Church guesthouse located at Ikotun-egbe area Lagos on the 12th September, 2014 around 1:10pm and rate of building construction with substandard materials kept increasing. People erect buildings without considering some factors and codes which are necessary to be put into place before embarking on any development and these calls for a reason to emphasize on the legal action to put an end to those disasters.

One of the reasons for this study is to intimate the government by given them power to enforce law  and safe guard the lives and properties of the citizenry that lives in housing general and life of the buildings by ensuring strict enforcement of housing and safety policies. It is also meant to enlighten developers on the needs for them to involve professionals in construction in order to avoid structural failure and collapse of buildings.


Adebayo, S.O. (2000). “Improving Building Techniques” Proceedings of a Workshop on Building Collapse: Causes, Prevention and Remedies. The Nigerian Institute of             Builders, Lagos State


Adediji, B. (2006). “Incessant Building Collapse: Estate Surveyors and Valuers’ Roles,     Responsibility and Liability”. A Paper Delivered at the CPD Seminar Organised by      Lagos State Branch of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers on        30thAugust, 2006.


Adegoroye, B. (2010). “Disaster Everywhere”. Daily Sun Newspapers, Retrieved from                               http://www.dailysunnewspaperonline.com/webpages/news/national/2006/mar/25/nati         onal-25-03-2006-006.htm.


Adeniyan  (2000): How Public-Private Partnership Can Tackle Building Collapse. 


Aderemi A.E and Oyeyemi O.F (2009). Legal Redress for Losses Sustained through Building      collapse in Nigeria. Page 13-14


Aderibigbe, Y. (2001). Homes and Property Correspondence, The Guardian, Monday,

            April 23, 2001, pg 39.


Ajayi, L. A. (1988) Concern for Collapse of Buildings in Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Engineers. Vol. 1, No. 2 pp. 52.


Amusan, J. 0. (1992) Strategies for Enhancing Local Governments Roles in Minimizing the           Collapse of Buildings. ln Effective Contract Management in the Construction   Industry. pp. 188-200.


Akeju. TA. (1984): Lessons From Some Recent Structural Failures. Journal of the Nigerian           Society of Engineers, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 81-84.


Ataev, S.S. (1985). Construction Technology, Mir Publishers, Second Edition, pg18-19, 256.


Badejo, E. (2009, July 13). “Engineers, Others Urge Multi-disciplinary Approach to Curb             Building Collapse”. The                      Guardian Newspapers, Retrieved from             http://www.naijaproperties.com/news_95php


Bamidele, O.T. (2000, Feb.,18). “Building Collapse: Stakeholders Proffer Solutions on Way         Forward”. Daily Sun Newspapers, Retrieved from http://www.dailysunngr.com


Bell, F. (1987). Engineering Properties of Soil and Rocks, Butterworth-Heinemann, 3rd    Edition, pgs 1-2.


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