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PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM KERNEL OIL

 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 48   Attributes: COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  09:10 am |  2190


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                

Approval page                                                                         

Dedication                                                                              

Acknowledgment                                                                    

Abstract                                                                                  

Table of contents                                                           

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction of palm kernel (Elaeis Guinensis)                 

1.2 Uses of palm kernel nut and oil

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Importance of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Family Palmae

2.2 Economic Importance of palm kernel nut and oil 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Sample collection and method

3.1 Physio-chemical properties determination

3.2 Determination of iodine value

3.3 Determination of Saponification value

3.4 Determination of Acid value

3.5 Determination of peroxide value

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Results and discussion

4.1 Result for iodine value

4.2 Result for saponification

4.3 Result for acid value

4.4 Result for peroxide value

4.5 Determination of free fatty acid

4.6 Determination of ester value

4.7 Discussion  

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendation 

References

ABSTRACT

Palm kernel oil is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol just like any ordinary fat. It is high in saturated acids, about 80%. The oil palm gives its name to the 16 carbon saturated fatty acids. Physio-chemical analysis of palm kernel nut were determined to contains saponification value (232.815 mgKoH/g), refractive index (1.453), iodine value acid, acid value (11.60mgKoH/g) and peroxide value (1.70meq/kg). 



CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRUDCTION

Oil nuts palms are commonly planted  in four tropical regions in Africa, South East Asia, Latin America and South Pacific. The objective of these palm industries is to generate oil. Palm kernel cakes from the nuts of palms fruits are generated as buy - products, along with oil as a main product. Palm kernel meals are found in large quantities in a number of tropical countries and are available at competitive prices.

 

Four million (M.T) of palm kernel cakes were produced in the world in 2002 with annual growth of 15% of P.K.M within the last two decades (F.A.O 2002), P.K.M have been widely used in ruminant feeds i.e. pig diets and rabbits diets.

However, few studies have been done to cope with their physical and nutritional handicaps. The efforts to improve .P.K.M. are through supplementation with biotin.

 

The palm kernel is a good source of potassium. This oil palm contains organic food substances and inorganic elements upon which life and other food substances depends. The fruits yield two oils, palm kernel oil and palm oil, each exhibiting differences in composition properties and applications.

 

Palm kernel oil is similar to coconut oil in composition and both are the only source of lauric oil available in the word market.

 

1.1    USES OF PALM KERNEL NUT AND OIL

         LIVE STOCK FEEDS: The palm Kernel have high fiber, low palatability and lack several essential amino acids, couple with some nutritional problems such as several anti-nutritional properties such as mannan, galactomannan, xylan and arabinoxylan which makes the inclusion of the poultry diet very limited.

 

         Much research have been taken to determine the quality of PKM and the maximum level in poultry diet and to replace other feedstuffs such as groundnuts and soybeans.

         BIODIESEL BIOMASS AND BIOGAS: Palm Kernel oil, like other vegetable oils, can be used to create biodiesel for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel has been promoted as a renewable energy source to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

         Therefore biodiesel is seen as a way to decrease the impact of the greenhouse effect and as a way of diversifying energy supplies to assist national energy security plans. Palm is also used to make biodiesel, as either a simply processed palm kernel oil mixed with petrodiesel or processed through trans-esterification to create a palm kernel oil methyl ester blend, which meets the international EN 14214 specification, with a glycerin as a by-product.

         The actual process used to make biodiesel a round the world vvarie4s between countries, and the requirements of different export markets.

Researchers found used frying oil (mainly palm Olein), after pretreatment with silica gel, is a suitable feedstock for conversion to methyl esters by catalytic reaction using sodium hydroxide. The methyl esters reduced have fuel properties comparable to those of petroleum diesel and can be used in unmodified diesel engines.

INDUSTRIES: The Palm and kernel oil are used in soap
production, vegetable oil and margarine besides the industrial
application these oils are use locally as body creams, cooking
oils.

MEDICALLY: They are used a antidotes for poisoning and as surface protectant for minor wounds.

1.2     OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The Objective of this is to determine/investigate further the physico-chemical characteristics of palm kernel oil, the chemical components of the palm kernel oil in order to ascertain suitability in consumption, ability to meet local and international market demands.

1.3     IMPORTANCE OF STUDY

To prove that palm kernel oil is rich in important food properties compared to some other oil seeds and nuts. The high quality protein showed its reliability as a good source of amino-acids for children and adults.

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