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 Format: Microsoft Word   Chapters: 1-5

 Pages: 43   Attributes: STANDARD RESEARCH

 Amount: 3,000

 Sep 16, 2019 |  08:54 am |  2549


Title page                                                                                          

Approval Page                                                                                   



Table of content                                                                      



1.0        Introduction and objective                                            

1.1        Introduction                                                                           

1.2        Objective                                                                                 



2.0        Literature review                                                                     

2.1        Calcium Bioaccessibility in Moringa Oleifera Vegetable leaves

2.2        Calcium Deficiency                                                                 

2.3        Calcium in the blood system                                                  

2.4        Calcium benefits                                                  

2.5        Function of Calcium                                                               

2.6        Sources of Calcium                                                                 



3.0        Methodology                                                                           

3.1        Determination of calcium: AOAC method using KMnO4

3.2        Material                                                                                            

3.3        Reagents required                                                         


4.0        Result and Discussion                                                            

4.1        Result                                                                                     

4.2        Discussion                                                                    


5.0        Conclusion, Recommendation and References                       

5.1        Conclusion                                                                    

5.2        Recommendation                                                          



Leafy vegetables are source of macro and micronutrients that play major role in maintaining health living because of the calcium that is present in the vegetables, the vegetable leaves (ugwu) were collected from representative markets in Lokoja International Market. The purpose of this research was to study the bioavailability of calcium in green vegetable leaves and the presence of some in Situ Calcium inhibitory factors. Samples obtained from the market were prepared by the uses of potassium permanganate (KMNO4) to carry out the litrimetric analysis to determine the calcium in a given sample. Compared to milk powder, which contain 25mg Calcium/100g, five out 11 vegetables had higher calcium dialysability (25%) the high level of dialysability calcium (20 - 30) were found in green vegetable leaves (ugwn), the presence of inhibitory factors, especially oxalate, at high or medium level could limit the calcium bioavailability of green vegetables leaves. Calcium must be ingested daily and absorbed effectively in order to maintain optional health, most people can get enough calcium by eating variety of foods rich in calcium products are leafy vegetable, sea food, nuts, dried beans orange juice fortified with calcium, breakfast, cereal breads, and other food product.




          Calcium is important for bone health. It has been customary to focus on dietary calcium intake, but of central importance for the body needs in the individual patient is the actual calcium absorption. This absorption consists of an active vitamin D-mediated component and a passive diffusional component.


          A number of different methods are available for the evaluation of calcium absorption. At present the calcium absorption test using calcium isotopes (radioactive or stable) appear to be the most reproducible way of determining calcium absorption.


          The major nutrient sources for calcium are milk and milk products, whereas some of the green vegetables have a low bioavailability of calcium.

Calcium is a mineral that helps to build the structure of the bones and the teeth. If the body does not take in enough calcium, the bones and teeth can become brittle and weak. Foods, such as dairy products, contain calcium but it can sometimes be a struggle to obtain the required amounts of calcium from the food we eat.


There are several ways to increase calcium content in green vegetables to ensure that one gets the calcium that the body needs to stay strong and healthy. (Shannon Mondry, 2002).

Vegetables are important protective foods and highly beneficial for the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. Studies have repeatedly shown that increasing colon and stomach cancer correlate with low vegetable meals, and suggests that vegetables may help resist these types of cancers (Whitney et al, 2002; Gropper et al, 2005).

Vegetables are the edible parts of plant that are consumed whole or used in dishes or salads. Vegetable includes leaves, stems, roots, flowers, seeds, fruits, bulbs, tubers and fungi (Uzo, 2003; Uwaegbute, 2005). The green leafy vegetable investigated were Amaranthus Hybridus commonly called African Spinach, Curcubita pepo commonly called marrow and Gnetum Africana which belong to the family of plants call Gnetaceae.


The increasing population of many tropical countries led to awareness of the importance of vegetables as a source of essential nutrients which may not be available in other food sources. Vegetables are good sources of oil, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins depending on the vegetables consumed (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 2006).


They are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserve in the body and are valued mainly for their high vitamin, dietary fibre and mineral content (Ball, 2006).


The dark green leaves and deep yellow fruits provide a high amount of carotene, ascorbic acid and micro minerals which play important roles in nutrients metabolism and slowing down of degenerative disease (Yi – fang et al, 2002). The wide variation on colour, shape, tastes and textures of various vegetables have added an interesting touch to meals (Fasuyi, 2006).


There is increasing epidemiological evidence in favour of an association between nutrition and susceptibility to infection. Health disorders such as appendicitis, haemorrhoids, gallstones, heart disease, obesity and constipation can be either corrected, or treated by copious consumption of vegetables (Whitney et al, 2002). The awareness of populace on the significance of nutrition in health has resulted to an increasing quest for biochemical knowledge of the composition of foods.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional values of green vegetables commonly consumed in south-western Nigeria. Vegetables, especially green vegetables, are known as a rich source of dietary calcium. Unfortunately, some vegetables with a high content of calcium show very low availability due to the presence of some substances (Phytates, Oxalate, and Dietary Fibre Components) which bind calcium to form unabsorbable compound.


Undefalted leafy vegetable is the vegetable that has its total crude lipid content not isolated while defalted leafy vegetable is the vegetable that has its total crude lipid content isolated.

Undefalted leafy vegetables play the role of being a source of energy to man, lipids in the vegetable help in maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane, lipids in vegetables protects the body from mechanical injury when deposited in the adipose tissue and lipids in vegetables make it palatable for eating (Ononugbu, 2002).


Undefalted vegetable serves as the function of transporting fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and in combination with certain proteins called apoprotein mediate a number of enzyme activities (Ononugbu, 2002). It was reported that vegetable fat and oil lower blood lipids thereby reducing the occurrence of disease associated with the damage of the coronary artery.


Vegetable fats and oils serve as precursors of prostaglandins which are known to perform the role of vasoconstriction and vasoconstriction of the blood vessels. Vegetable fats and oils are known to serve as precursors of thromboxane which facilitate blood clotting in humans (Ononogbu, 2002).

In defaltded green vegetables, off-flavours and odorous tastes are eliminated and these are as a result of lipid autoxidation which eventually leads to rancidity.

The effect of some organic acids on calcium availability has been documented. An enhancement effect by ascorbic acid and citric acid was reported. Many literatures and data on the effect of an enhancer or an inhibitor on the mineral are available.

These studies were often carried out by an in vitro or an in vivo availability evaluation. The in vitro method was widely performed by the method or modified method of miller using a simulated gastrointestinal digestion with an equilibrium dialysis procedure.



          Data on these components in foods are still limited. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to study the bioavailability of calcium from plant origin and the presence of some calcium inhibitory factors.

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